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UNIVERSITY OF RWANDA COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE

UNIVERSITY OF RWANDA
COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE & BUILT ENVIRONMENT
DEPARTMENT OF ESTATE MANAGEMENT VALUATION

THE IMPACT OF ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE ON SOCIO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN RWANDA.THE CASE OF KIMISAGARA ROAD.

By
Abel MURWANASHYAKA Reg. No. 215023129
Jean Berchimas BAYIRAMYE Reg. No. 215006482

Supervisor:
Mr. Antoine MUHIRWA

June 2018

UNIVERSITY OF RWANDA
COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE & BUILT ENVIRONMENT
DEPARTMENT OF ESTATE MANAGEMENT AND VALUATION

THE IMPACT OF ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN RWANDA. THE CASE IN KIMISAGARA ROAD.

A RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN ESTATE MANAGEMENT AND VALUATION, FROM THE SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE & BUILT ENVIRONMENT, UNIVERSITY OF RWANDA.

By

Abel MURWANASHYAKA Reg. NO. 215023 129
Jean Berchimas BAYIRAMYE Reg.NO.215006482

Supervisor:

Mr. Antoine MUHIRWA

June 2018

Approval by School of Architecture and Built Environment

It is confirmed that this project (thesis) with title of The Impact of Road Infrastructure Maintenance on Socio-economic Development in Rwanda. by Abel Murwanashyaka and Jean Berchimas has been accepted by jury’s committee in the department of Estate Management and Valuation On …………….

Research Coordinator:
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HoD : .……………………………………………..
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Dean: .……………..…………………………….
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DECLARATION

We, Abel MURWANBASHYAKA and BAYIRAMYE Jean Berchimas declare that this project entitled The Impact of road Infrastructure Maintenance on Socio-economic Development in Rwanda. -Case study of Kimisagara Sector” is a result of our personal endeavor and has never been submitted here before.
Abel MURWANASHYAKA BAYIRAMYE Jean Berchimas.
Signature……………………….. Signature………………………………..
Date……………………………. Date …………………………………..

Certified by:
Mr. Antoine MUHIRWA.
Project supervisor
Signature………………………..
Date …………………………….
Certified by:
Mr. Antoine MUHIRWA
Head of Department of Estate Management and Valuation
Signature ………………………
Date…………………………….

APPROVAL

This research report was supervised and submitted for examination with my approval.

Signed …………………………………………………… Date ……………………….
Supervisor

This research report was examined by:

Signed …………………………………………………… Date ……………………….
External Examiner

CERTIFICATION

This is to certify that the project entitled “The Impact of Road Infrastructure Maintenance on Socio-economic Development in Rwanda. A Case of KIMISAGARA Sector” is recorded of the Original work done by Abel MURWANASHYAKA Ref: 215023129 and BAYIRAMYE Jean Berchimas Ref: 215006482 in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Bachelor Degree of Science with honors in Estate Management and Valuation, Collage of Science and Technology, University of Rwanda (UR-CST) during the academic year 2017-2018.

MUHIRWA Antoine
Project Supervisor

DEDICATION

We dedicate this work to:
All might God for all his guidance, love, protection, and help.
Our beloved Parents Families and friends
All Department of EMV staff especially our supervisor Mr. Antoine MUHIRWA.
Our siblings for all their contribution of this work
ABEL’s aunt FAITH UWINGABIRE
All our classmates for the part they have played in our live during this four long and existing year.
All special friend and family member especially the family KABERA JOHNS, family Pastor TWAGIRA MAHORO CELESTIN, Family Pastor RUZINDANDEKWE ESIDORE

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

First of all, our gratitude eternally goes to Almighty God who helps us in all ways to arrive at the End of our study.
For the period of our study in University of Rwanda (Nyarugenge campus), many people helped us and making us feel at home. Here, we would like to take the opportunity to express our deepest gratitude to all the people who have provided our support and help in the study and research work.
We are particularly grateful to Mr. Antoine MUHIRWA for his helpful guidance and valuable Correction and suggestions for this work.
Our thanks go also to all teachers, who taught us till now for the valuable training they offered to us.
We would like again to express our thanks and appreciations to all our Classmates who supplied us, kindly, relevant information, advices enabling us the completion of this project work.
We thank our friends who have contributed a lot for their support which were necessary during this period of Research project.
The achievement of this thesis would not have been possible without the almighty God valuable contribution of the government of Rwanda, the ministry of education, REB, UR-CST and the department of EMV.
Last but not least, our special thanks go to our beloved parents, our brothers and sisters for their understanding and spiritual support. You are all in our heart.

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 Total sample of distribution of respondents 28
Table 2 the impact of road maintenance on the people live in Kigali 31
Table3 the problems that faced the people from road maintenance 33
Table 4 suggestion for road maintenance for the people live in Kimisagara sector 35
Table5 the estimation rate that the road maintenance provided in Kigali city 37
Table 6 the distribution of respondents who participants for the use of methods of road maintenance and another who did not participated but the approach of road maintenance should applied. 41
Table 7 suggestion from respondents about approach used in road maintenance 42

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure1 Research Concept Model 3
Figure 2 boundaries of Nyarugenge District. 17
Figure 3 The Urban Design Report for Kimisagara Sector 2016 17
Figure 4 Boundaries of Kimisagara Sector 18
Figure 6 participant affected by research in Kimisagara sector 30
Figure 7 the impact of road maintenance on the people live in Kigali 32
Figure 8 the problems that faced the people from road maintenance in Kimisagara 34
Figure 9 Suggestions for road maintenance for the people live in Kimisagara sector 36
Figure 10 the estimation rate that the road maintenance provided in Kigali city 38
Figure 11 suggestions from respondents about approach used in road maintenance 43

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Approval by School of Architecture and Built Environment iii
DECLARATION iv
APPROVAL v
CERTIFICATION vi
DEDICATION vii
ACKNOWLEDGMENT viii
LIST OF TABLES ix
LIST OF FIGURES x
LIST OF ABREVIATIONS/ACRONYM xii
ABSTRACT xiii
CHAPTER 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1
1.2 RESEARCH PROBLEM STATEMENT 2
1.3 RESEARCH CONCEPT MODEL 3
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH 3
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION 4
1.6 DEFINITION CONCEPTS 5
1.8 SCOPE AND LIMITATION 6
1.9 RESEARCH TARGET GROUP 6
1.10 STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT 7
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 8
2.1. INTRODUCTION 8
2.2. INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT IN RWANDA 8
2.3 IMPACT OF TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE ON COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT 9
2.4 IMPACT OF ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENAINCE ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 9
2.5 IMPORTANCE OF ROAD MAINTENANCE 10
2.6 THE RATE OF ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE IN RWANDA 10
2.7CAUSES OF ROAD MAINTAINANCE ISSUE 11
2.7.1 Inadequate of road maintenance shortens the life of the road 11
2.8 The effect that caused from the inappropriate methods during road maintaining. 11
2.9 SOCIAL EFFECT OF INAPPROPRIATE METHODS DURING MAINTENANCE OF THE ROADS. 13
2.9.1 UN INCIDENT ACCIDENT DUE THE POOR MAINTENANCE IN SOCIETY 13
2.10 EFFECT OF POVERTY DUE TO THE UNEMPLOYMENT TO THE PEOPLE 13
2.11 THE MOST SUITABLE MEAN OF MAINTENANCE FOR TARMAC ROADS 14
2.12 ROAD NETWORK AND TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM IN RWANDA 14
CHAPTE 3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 15
3.1. INTRODUCTION 15
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN 15
3.3. SELECTION OF CASE STUDY 16
3.3.1 DESCRIPTIVE CASE STUDY 16
3.4 SAMPLING 18
3.4.1 Sampling size 19
3.4.2 METHO FOR DATA COLLACTION 21
3.5 DATA COLECTION 21
3.5.1. Difference between research methods and methodology 21
3.5.2. RESEARCH METHODS/APPROACHES 22
3.6 METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS 24
3.6.1. Data processing 24
3.6.2 TOOLS OF DATA ANALYSIS 25
3.6.3 DATA PRESENTATION 26
CHAPTER 4 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 27
4.1 INTRODUCTION 27
4.2 DATA PRESENTATION 27
4.3 PROFESSIONAL INFORMANTS 39
4.3.1 NYARUGENGE DISTRICT 39
4.4 FINDINGS ON THE METHODS THAT CAN BE BEST TO USE FOR ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE MENTENANCE. 40
4.5 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND THE DISCUSSION 44
4.5.1 FINDINGS 44
4.5.2 Discussion 44
CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 46
5.2 CONCLUSIONS 46
5.3 LIMITATION OF THE RESEARCH PERFORMANCE 47
5.4 RECOMMENDATION 47
REFERENCES 49
APPENDICES 54

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS/ACRONYMS

ADB: African Development Bank
CST: College of Science and technology
EMV: Estate Management and Valuation
RNRA: Rwanda Natural Resources Authorities
RQ: Research question
SABE: School of Architecture and Built Environment
UR: University of Rwanda
MININFRA: Ministry of Infrastructure
EAC: East Africa Community
NISR: National Institute Statistics of Rwanda
UN-HABITAT: United Union Human Settlement Program
UNDESA: United Nation Department of Economic and Social Affair
KTMP: Kigali Transport Master Plan
RTSR: Rwanda transport sector review action plan
AER: Annually Evaluation Review
RTDA: Rwanda Transport Development Agency
NDP: National Development Plan
CBA: Cost Best Analysis
SPSS: Statistical Package for the Social Sceince

ABSTRACT

Road maintenance is vital for roads because maintenance is the only way to keep the property or asset in good working order and continue to serve its purpose during its life time. In Rwanda there lack of community ownership on roads, lack of proper maintenance plan, and more effort in new road development project rather than maintenance. Our research paper aim is to assess the effects of road maintenance on socio-economic development in Kigali City. We chose to carry out a research on this topic because road maintenance contributes great changes on socio-economic development through enhancing county’s domestic product (GDP). Road infrastructure maintenance in Rwanda faces with serious issues that include: climate change, where during rainy season a lot of roads bought pot holes and some them are carried away by flowing water and also painting become another issues, all this challenges would enhance the number of accident in road in Kigali.
The methods we used in our paper include; qualitative and quantitative data analysis. In the analysis of both qualitative and quantitative data. We used SPSS and Excel. In analyzing our data, graphs and tables used. In our research we found that interaction among individuals increase, road accidents has been reduced, increase security, and also road connect people with different places.
Road infrastructure is quintessential in all we are doing, it helps us to enhance productivity in all sectors include both industrial that aim to satisfy market needs and subsistence sectors that aim for home consumption.so without maintaining road infrastructure it would increase the cost of achieving a well sustainable social and economic development.

CHAPTER 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION
In this chapter we regarding about for the experts like books, authors and articles which is related to the road maintenance, the problem statement on the road maintenance and we continue to see the research problem and research objective and research model which is help to understand well this thesis.

1.1 BACK GROUND OF THE STUDY
Road network cannot be performed if we ignore the contribution on preparation or maintenance.
Transportation connects the various destinations; in fact, it connects the whole world. It influences the accessibility of investors and tourism in country and in all over the word.
A strong road infrastructure system is the key components for poverty eradication and economic sustainable and also it is the back born for economic growth of country (sultana, 2012).
Roads are the most essential part of infrastructure for providing industry and agriculture with the connectivity to markets for growth in production and trade, and more so for improving the quality of life of its citizens (NHAI, 2012).

The main function of the road is for easy transport for goods and services and passengers between the destinations. An excellent transportation infrastructure means providing the accessibility of all possible markets for the development of any destination. Development of all hospitality and leisure activities are practically close to the transportation terminals, in fact they are correlated each steps they pass through. Flow of tourist has been strongly growing up since past decade (Gairhe, 2013)

Almost everybody they use or affected by the road network road network facilitates transport services and reduce the costs of travel and trade; individual roads enhance accessibility to markets and services. In most countries, roads are the major transport mode for both freight and passengers. Road networks have expanded in the Asia Pacific region, and freight and passenger transport will continue to grow, along with motorization (AER, 2013).

Kigali is a city with a central locate city in a landlocked country far from ocean, according to (MININFRA,2009) Stated that “a distance of nearly 1,400 km to the nearest port of Dar-es-Salaam poses Rwanda with a major limitation in her national development efforts”.
The current situation in Rwanda especially in Kigali focus on new road development, absence of proper maintenance plan, and lack of community ownership. This will slow down economic growth and development and led to political insurgency in some parts of any region or country, and also led more urban associated problem such as urban bright and unplanned growth of a city (sprawl).

1.2 RESEARCH PROBLEM STATEMENT
Roads infrastructure, and ways of transport is quintessential human need, make a vital contribution to national economic development and growth and bring important social benefits. Poorly maintained roads hinder transportation, significantly increase vehicle operating costs, increase the rates of accident and their associated human and property costs, and make worse isolation, poverty, poor welfare, and increment of illiteracy in the local communities. This research highlights the economic and social impact of regular road maintenance on community and recommends ways to attain a well sustainable road maintenance with no resource extravagance. Due to poor road conditions in Kigali it costs a lot many businesses may suffer from losses resulting from traffic congestion and also may affects education through which some students delay arrival at school, collision. Results from the study shows that urban roads in Kigali are in a deplorable condition and households suffer a lot of consequential damages arising from it but the problem government bodies with responsibility to cater for roads concentrate on newly development, absence of proper plan, and lack of community ownership. The results also show that households are willing to pay for improved road conditions. The research that the government should formulate a good infrastructure policy that will enhance the sustainability of infrastructure over time and should also encourage public participation in urban infrastructure provision and maintenance

1.3 RESEARCH CONCEPT MODEL
Figure1 Research Concept Model

SOURCE: RESEARCH CONSTRUCTION (MAY, 2018)

1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE RESEARCH

Main objective
To research the effects of road maintenance on socio-economic development.
Sub-Objectives
A. To identify the importance of road maintenance.
B. To determine the rate of road infrastructure maintenance development
C. To research the effect of transportation infrastructure on community development
D. To assess the impact of road infrastructure maintenance on social economic development.

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
Main Question
What are the effects of road maintenance on socio-economic development in Rwanda?
Sub –Questions
A. What is the status of road infrastructure development?
B. What is the impact of transportation infrastructure on community development ?
C. How does road infrastructure development contribute to community development ?
D. What are problems that are associated with road infrastructure maintenance development?

1.6 DEFINITION CONCEPT
1.6.1 Infrastructure is generally defined as the physical framework of facilities through which goods and services are provided to the public (Goel, 2oo2). It acts as links of multiple sector in the economy, and affects the overall output of any region.
1.6.2 Maintenance: is to preserve the asset, not upgrade it unlike major road works, maintenance
must be done regularly. (World Bank, 2005)
1.6.3 Road Maintenance: as cited in World Bank report, 2005 Road maintenance comprises
“activities to keep pavement, shoulders, slopes, drainage facilities and all other structures and property within the road margins as near as possible to their as-constructed
or renewed condition” (PIARC 1994).
1.6.4 Social Economic Development:
1.6.5 Road Infrastructure: According to the world report on traffic injury prevention (2004) comment that road infrastructure is the Road facilities and equipment, including the network, parking spaces, stopping places, draining system, bridges and footpaths.
1.6.6 Economics: According to Robbins’s famous definition, “Economics is the science which studies human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have
alternative uses” (NSES, p. 16). Found from report of STICERD edited by Cowell &Witztum.
“Economics is concerned with the efficient allocation of scare resources.
When purchasing raw materials, employing labor and undertaking
investment decisions, the manager is involved in resource allocation”
(Nellis and Parker, 2006, p. 3, emphasis in the original). Found from report of STICERD edited by Cowell &Witztum.

1.8 SCOPE AND LIMITATION
Road infrastructure maintenance is the one of the major problems in Kigali city to reach the target of economic development in Rwanda, where the government requires a lot of money to invest in this sector, because it is necessary to be implemented where there is existing of the road network needed to be repaired or maintained. The government responsibility is to give them sustainable infrastructure development and also the private concerned.
During in our research we look maintenance on the road network in Rwanda, policies implemented or proposed by the state and intervention done to face the maintenance gap, the study will also look the result will come out to be. The focus is mainly in the city of Kigali which is shows the potential development of road infrastructure project have been implemented under ministry of infrastructure established by the Rwanda transport development agency. Some of the area developed is Nyarugenge district. The study is limited to the road network because is necessary need by the human being to use in daily life.

1.9 RESEARCH TARGET GROUP

1.9.1 MININFRA: it is the ministry in charge of sustainable economic development and work closely together with RTDA. It will provide the primary data about the transport infrastructure in Rwanda.
1.9.2 Rwanda Transport Development Agency (RTDA): During in our research the RTDA will provide the primary data about the transport, because for their responsibility has to promoting the transport services for person and goods in the country.
1.9.3 Local community: They will provide us the data on the challenges they faced in infrastructure development.
1.9.4 National Institutes Statistics of Rwanda (NISR): during in our research the NISR will provide the primary data about income of group of people resident live in Kigali city which will help to use in our data collection in our research.
1.9.5 Private Sector: during our research, private sector will help us understand more about road and transport delivery such as property developers, construction industries, transport finance providers, e.tc, they will provide primary data about the transport infrastructure development industry.

1.10 STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT
Chapter 1: it provides the introduction to road infrastructure maintenance and presents the research objective, research question, definition of Concepts, Research Motivation, Scope and Limitation, Research Target Group
Chapter 2: provide the detail review of literature on road infrastructure maintenance on economic development.
Chapter 3: it provides the details of research design and methodology on the road infrastructure maintenance.
Chapter 4: presents the analysis and findings of questioner surveys and interview which finally draw the out came of research.
Chapter 5: it presents the recommendation and conclusion for the research

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. INTRODUCTION
A literature review was done, utilizing different online journals, magazines published by both private and states institutions including MININFRA, REMA and RTDA online reports about conditions of roads in Kigali, also we using other internet publications from west part of the world especially developed countries and how and current road network contributes to socio economic development, and also we try to look on road development, transportation infrastructure, its contributions and impacts on socio economic development in Rwanda as a less developed.
2.2. INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT IN RWANDA
Rwanda is a land locked country with the economy growing faster. The economy depends much more on the infrastructure especially road due to its location, this is the only cheapest means of transport. Infrastructure facilitates businesses to deliver services to their customers, helps government to plan especially settlement arrangement and also helps for the flow movement of people and goods especially among regions thus promotes integration. In this century Rwanda and other states invest much budget in developing infrastructure. Especially in Kigali a lot of infrastructure development have impacted the household both socially and economically where people they can develop relationship among themselves and as well as standard of living. As cited in detailed district physical plan, 2013 “The road network in Kigali has begun to show signs of age, and while the overall condition of the network is healthy, it is expected to deteriorate further in the next 30 years, if a good maintenance regime is not put in place. The transportation master plan is developed to ensure that Kigali is well-equipped to fulfill the transport requirements of a modern city while supporting a healthy economic growth and promoting a higher quality of life. It can help in mitigating the e?ects of climate change and provide sustainable measures to adapt to the changes”.
So infrastructure is one of the most human need to change all aspects of life including both social and economic through enhancing country’s economic growth and development Common sense suggests that modern economies cannot function without infrastructure, which
provides a variety of critical services in determining any economy’s production and consumption possibilities (et.al, 2010).
A strong road infrastructure system is the key components of poverty eradication and economic sustainability and it is the back born of economic growth of a country road authorities is responsible for the construction and maintenance of the road network system controlling the cost of maintenance as well as keeping the road infrastructure in an efficient in very important issue for the road authority (Sultana, 2013).

2.3 IMPACT OF TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE ON COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT
Transport infrastructure play a big role on community development, transport infrastructure links people with places. This promotes balance development among regions thus reduce income inequality, transport infrastructure is commonly used to easy the flow movement of people and facilitates delivery of services and goods. More states especially more developed more budget spent in transport infrastructure to help people to get access to services.
For making the sustainable of road, the government ownership and commitment to project, the appropriate policies ensure for continuing funding for the maintaining the road project. This will protect the operation of Weight Bridge that preventing the overloaded vehicle that may cause the problems of distraction of road infrastructure. A road classification is necessary for prioritize of investment. Making decisions about the specific roads to be paved, the standard required and where most investment is required helps policy makers allocate the limited resources in a manner that will help achieve optimal results (RTSR, 2013)
2.4 IMPACT OF ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENAINCE ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
“The Organic Law No. 04/2005 of 08/04/2005 determining the modalities of protection, conservation and promotion of environment in Rwanda, requires all projects to be subjected to environmental impact assessment, at various scales” (Mukankomeje, 2009)
Road infrastructure maintenance have a strong contribution to the environmental degradation and improves municipal waste which costs more in trying to manage those wastes.in addition a lot of human suffer from resinous diseases resulting from flying quart debris. Not only negative impact also promotes the use of local resources, as well as cooperation and integration among different regions. When we use CBA Techniques to analyze maintenance project we would find that benefits associated with maintenance is higher compared to costs that would incurred in the future, the associated cost would be both social and economically affected which led to under economic development and underutilization local resources due to lack of proper government plan that take into account the road infrastructure maintenance.

2.5 IMPORTANCE OF ROAD MAINTENANCE
Road maintenance plays a very huge role in all daily living. It helps us to keep the road in good or proper conditions so that that road continues to serve its purpose. As a result of that people can develop friendships, doing business, employment opportunities through the creation of casual jobs, facilitates accessibly on services like (schools, health center, markets). A proper road network is a vital need of any society. A numerous roads functions and maintenance of the property is an important need of in improving the welfare of the community. “The roads not only carry all people, vehicles and goods, but also all the other service apparatus, such as water, sewerage, electricity and telephones that are essential to maintain our present standard of living” Orkney,2013-2018. In addition the roads network is the only thing that links tourists or other visitors to the tourist site though roads contribution in enhancing county’s earnings from tourism.
2.6 THE RATE OF ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE IN RWANDA

In Rwanda The classified network is the responsibility of the Ministry of Infrastructure and is
divided into 3 245 km of primary roads (1022 km of paved roads and 2 223 km of dirt road)
which deflect international traffic and ensure inter-regional links and 2 163 km of secondary
roads (all dirt) which operate the local links. The condition of the classified road network
and bridges in 2003 is as follows: i) paved roads: good condition, 23%; acceptable, 37%;
poor condition, 40%; ii) dirt roads: good condition, 10%; acceptable, 40%; poor condition,
50%. As regards bridges, 30% are to be reconstructed, 35% to rehabilitate and 25% require
small maintenance operations (Project R. I., 2003).

2.7CAUSES OF POOR ROAD MAINTAINANCE THAT LEADS THE LOW DEVELOPMENT IN COUNTRY.
2.7.1 Inadequate of road maintenance shortens the life of the road
Maintenance resources in nearly all cases are less than the estimated requirements, both physical and financial; in one case only one-third of the requirements were being met. In another case, inadequate maintenance was associated with rapidly growing traffic, poor road maintenance standards, and design and construction deficiencies. In another case, inefficient implementation of road maintenance increased both the number of roads beyond maintainable condition and the backlog of deferred maintenance (AER, 2013).
Apart from the low quality of unpaved national and districts roads, other critical issues include lack of an appropriate road classification system, a lack of national standards and manuals, axle load control and planning data necessary for proper management of the network (RTSR, 2013).

2.8 The effect that caused from the inappropriate methods during road maintaining.
The effects can be exacerbated by natural disasters; in one case, less than 5% was spent on routine maintenance, with most maintenance funds used to respond to emergency needs. Where road condition surveys took place, many roads were found to be in poor condition; in one case, only 40% of national roads were in good condition; in another, 60%; in a further case, 48% in poor condition and 32% in very poor condition. Some countries have been reducing the maintenance backlog as a priority, or focusing on rehabilitation (AER, 2013).
Some material used for maintaining the road is failed, where the granular material Granular materials which are saturated with water will lose 90% of their strength resulting in pavement failures. This is what happened during last winter (Campbel, 2014).

Saturated pavement failed in winter
Source: (cold chon ,2010)
When constructing roads paved with layers of Bitumen Macadam/Asphalt the seal of the road is achieved by the use of Bond coats of Bitumen Emulsion between the various layers of pavement, these both seal the road and bind layers together to make a laminated structure, omission of bond coats or inadequate application of bond coat is a cause of pave¬ment failure (Campbell, 2014).

Omission of bond coat or inadequate of bond coat cause failure pavement.
Source: (cold chon ,2010)
2.9 SOCIAL EFFECT OF INAPPROPRIATE METHODS DURING MAINTENANCE OF THE ROADS.
2.9.1 THE HIGH ACCIDENT DUE THE POOR MAINTENANCE IN SOCIETY

The roads network which is not maintain it causes accident according to the RTSR (2013) stated that an increase in transport accidents is a major undesirable outcome of transport infrastructure and services. As access to transport facilities and services increase, there will be need to improve mechanisms preventing and reducing the severity and frequency of accidents. Transportation safety is particularly critical in road transport because motorized and non-motorized traffic often share the same space while having differing operating speeds, knowledge of traffic regulations and levels of protection.
According to MININFRA, the total number of road accidents between 2007 and 2010 more than doubled, increasing by 2,486 accidents. During the same period, the percentage of several accidents decreased from about32% to 26%. In 2007 and 2010, there were about760 and 1,170 severe accidents in Rwanda. MININFRA and RTDA also estimated a total of 308 and 445 road-related deaths in 2007 and 2010. In 2010, pickups accounted for 1,944 accidents while cars and motorcycles accounted for 1,684 and 1,442 accidents respectively.

2.10 EFFECT OF POVERTY DUE TO THE UNEMPLOYMENT TO THE PEOPLE

The lock of maintaining the road result unemployment where people they want to supply their product from one place to another because of poor road maintained the investor they committed with loss for their business profit and the diversification of house hold income source reduction. In fact, the majority people live in Kigali city where the main activities are commercial, they need to work in different sector due to the lock of maintained road it hinders of them, and also the majority of poor people live in rural areas where the main activities are agricultural, this problem of un employment to supply their product in the urban area due to the lock of maintained road it affects them, there is evidence that nonfarm activities are becoming a major source of income. Smith, Gordon, (Zwick, 2001) show that road rehabilitation projects in Uganda have extended job opportunities in the service sector.

2.11 THE MOST SUITABLE MEAN OF MAINTENANCE FOR TARMAC ROADS
When we deeply investigate the word maintenance, we would see much approaches used in road maintenance but most suitable and commonly used for tarmac is recurrent maintenance.
Recurrent maintenance can be defined as “works which are required at intervals throughout the year and involves repair of potholes, grading of earth roads, and patching and sealing of cracks on tarmac roads” Rutagarama, 2013.

2.12 ROAD NETWORK AND TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM IN RWANDA
Road network in Rwanda is not good for helping the household which is located In Kigali city in reality, because of most of them in areas like NYAMIRAMBO, KIMISAGARA, GIKONDO, KIYOVU are in a deplorable conditions and no enough size as well inadequate drainage system to drain water and sewages from homes. As a result of the issues stated above it seems like the cars exceeds the capacity of the roads in many areas of Kigali and also road destroyed year over the year.so there is a need of collaboration between government institutions and private sectors such that concession or public private partnership. Infrastructure that is well planned helps the government to achieve into the pass of becoming smart city through improves economic growth as well as improving human capital which lead to the improvement of standards of living as well as smart city vision and smart citizens with the welfare (GJHSS, 2011).
Urban transport infrastructure in developing country mega-cities such as Cairo, Lagos, Mexico-city and Bangkok, is so deficient that traffic-jam related economic losses of several hundreds of million US dollars is not uncommon, not counting pollution related damages (Panayotou, 1998). The impact of the poor road condition on Lagos
households is enormous as most roads lack adequate drainage which escalates the flooding and damage to roads (GJHSS, 2011).

CHAPTE3. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1. INTRODUCTION
A research is always defined by its methodologies; research methodology is defined as a way to be systematically solving the research problem. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. In it, we study the various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem along with the logic behind them (Kothari, 1990). This definition explains and shows well various steps that are generally adopted in studying his research problem along with the logic behind them. It may be understood that the methodology revolves around the problem, in other words, the underlying logic in choosing the methodology is the scope and nature of that problem. This chapter describes how the research study was conducted including research design, target population, sample size and sampling techniques. It shows also tools that a researcher used for data collection, data gathering procedures, data processing and data analysis. The purpose of this research project is to assess the impact of Road Infrastructure maintenance in social economic development in Rwanda, case study in Kimisagara sector.

3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
Empirical research depends on experience or observation often without regard for system and theory, there are data-based that come up with conclusions and that are capable of being verified by opinion or experiment. It is called experimental research. The researchers work to get enough facts to prove or disprove the true behind those facts. Their work is to set up experimental designs to manipulate the persons/materials concerned to bring forth desired information. It is characterized by the experimenter’s control over the variables under study and their deliberate manipulation of one of their studies and its effects.
Empirical research is an appropriate method for us because we want to proof some variables which affect other variables in some way. Empirical studies will provide trusted information or evidence that is considered to be the most powerful support possible for our hypothesis.

3.3. SELECTION OF CASE STUDY
Case study research design is defined as tools used to conduct intensive study on problem and this is relevant to avoid generalization beyond the case, which may be a phenomenon or individual. Case study research enables you to investigate important topics not easily covered by other methods. The case study method helps you to make direct observations and collect data in natural settings, compared to relying on resulting data. Before case selection began, we recognized the challenge of verifying a driver’s contribution to coverage improvement. We also recognized that the limited time and budget available for data collection would prevent us from getting a deep enough understanding of the implementation context. Therefore, to validate findings and to gather data from a counterfactual situation, we also included negative cases, where coverage levels remained steady over the same time period (LaFond, 2013).
We were chosen to use the case study of Nyarugenge District in sector of Kimisagara because the maintenance plan is concerns with the new development without the road maintenance that is the reasons to select this research.
Another main reason of selecting Kimisagara sector, in Nyarugenge district, because it is easy to get adequate information of basis so that we might more significant with quality, validity and reliability. The choice of this study motivated by highest problems of inaccessibility of amenities and high accidents and traffic congestion. The availability of primary data of road maintenance for that sector in the course of fieldwork. And because of many people are need to access that road of Kimisagara sector corridor it is very easy to take the sample randomly users.

3.3.1 DESCRIPTIVE CASE STUDY
3.3.1.1 The geographical description of area
Nyarugenge District is the one of the third Kigali city Districts of Gasabo and Kicukiro in Rwanda and is populated area; the estimated terrain elevation above sea level is…meters.
Kimisagara is one of ten sectors in Nyarugenge district which are Gitega, Kanyinya, Kigali, Mageragere, Muhima, Nyakabanda, Nyamirambo, Nyarugenge, and Rwezamenyo.

3.3.1.2. Location s of study area
Figure 2 boundaries of Nyarugenge District.

Source: Google maps 2018
Figure 3 The Urban Design Report for Kimisagara Sector 2016

Source: Google Map, 2017
Figure 4 Boundaries of Kimisagara Sector

Source: Google Map, 2018

3.4 SAMPLING
The data were collected at Kimisagara sector in the Nyarugenge district, the population of Kimisagara from what sample actually was picked up and about which conclusion can be made through. Due to the short time allocation to this research study and financial issues we were unable to reach this entire population, we used the statistical method for sampling the population from we were collected information. The key involving in the road maintenance in the study area includes the commercial owners of properties, residential properties and the users of the road for that sector; government institution includes Rwanda Transport Development Agency (RTDA), Experts, for the purpose of this research. Probability sampling method was used in Kimisagara sector in Nyarugenge district respectively.

3.4.1 Sampling size
3.4.1.1 Sampling size for sector
Probability sampling represents a group of sampling techniques that help researchers to select units from a population that they are interested in studying. A core characteristic of probability sampling techniques is that units are selected from the population at random using probability methods. A probability sampling method is any method of sampling that utilizes some form of random selection. In order to have a random selection method, you must set up some process or procedure that assures that the different units in your population have equal probabilities of being chosen.
The populations who live in Kimisagara sector are so many due to the different business they do some of them are residents, commercialists and others are temporally business man that is located around the tarmac road in Kimisagara sector.
Kimisagara administration: The time of the researcher were at this sector, the secretory executive officer told us they have the total number of people who are live in this sector is 43,670, we selected 68 people who have been affected by the project in Kimisagara road from Nyabugogo to Nyamirambo road streets, that is why we decided to use the probability sampling to get the sample size of the sector. The sample size was determined an assumed a confidence level of 90%. The response achieved would be within +10, -10 of the true state population targeted. The Total population of Kimisagara sector is indicated and the some calculation it shown below
n=((Z^2 X P(1-p)))/e^2 (N))/(1+((Z^2 XP(1-p))/e^2 ))
Where;
N = Number of population size
n = Sample size
P = sample population estimated being measured. Assume a 90% confidence level of the target population
1-P = Q
e = acceptable error (e = 0.1, since the estimate should be 10% of the true value)
Z = the standard normal deviate at required confidence level = 1.96

There for
n = 68 simple size
Due to the efficiency information we need the above number we wanted is true for making the sample size people of Kimisagara sector. The advantage of this procedure is to reduce the field expenses and conserve the energy and the time which are scarcity to obtain as all.

ii) Residential property: people that have the own land and property that stay on it or that live on. Seven (18) respondents are sufficient to provide the adequate information that will help the researcher to conducting the well research.
iii) Commercial properties: are the properties or buildings that are used for commercial or business purpose. Eleven (26) respondents are sufficient to provide the accurate information that will assist the researcher to conduct well research.
iv)Users of the road: these include the motorcyclist, Tax drivers, pedestrians that are use the road. All of them are twenty (21) respondents are sufficient to provide the adequate information that help the researcher to conduct the research well.

3.4.1.2 Sampling size for formants
I) Nyarugenge district: during our research, city engineer of Nyarugenge district connects us to the Road maintenance manager who has in his responsibility. One (1) staff or respondent ` help researcher to give the accurate information and data which will assist him to conduct the well research.
iii) Professional for academician: those are experts for professional engineers for transport and high ways. One (3) staff or respondent ` help researcher to give the accurate information related to the maintaining of the road which will assist him to conduct the well research.

v) RTDA staff: The institution for responsibility for transport and promoting the transport services for person and goods in the country. One (1) staff or respondent ` help researcher to give the accurate information and data which will assist him to conduct the well research.

3.4.2 METHO FOR DATA COLLACTION
Data collection is a systematic approach to gathering information from a variety of sources to get complete and accurate picture of an area of interest (Karen, 2013).
Data may also be ‘original’, in the sense that you have collected information never before collected; i.e. “those which are collected afresh and for the first time, and thus happen to be original in character” (Kothori, 2004), Or may be ‘secondary’, already put together by somebody else, but re-used, probably in a different way by you.
Data collection in Kimisagara was focused on the effects road infrastructure maintenance for the users and for the people who are live there in that sector and making assess for the possible suggestion of them which help the research to conducting the information well in our research.
3.4.2.1 Primary data collection
The primary data are data that were previously unknown and which have been obtained directly by the researcher for a particular research project (Currie, 2005). This research study seems to find how the road infrastructure maintaining affect users and society or community, the primary data was gathered from the survey that was conducted through the administering of questionnaires and interviews.
3.4.2.2. SECONDARY DATA COLLECTION
This study primarily uses a desk review of available literature to develop an understanding of the complexity of influencing the topic. It uses observation and interpreted literature on a series of exemplars to narrow down and focus on appropriate applications that could be realistically achieved within the limitations of the selected locality as well as the parameters of the study. The secondary data information will be retrieved from articles in journals, document from online sources and from websites.
3.5 DATA COLECTION
3.5.1. Difference between research methods and methodology
Research methodology is defined as design or process that involves the overall assumption of research to the method of data collection and analysis (CRESWELL, 2009).
Research methods are defined as tools and techniques used together and analyses data when conducting a research. In research methodology, we found the reason for choosing a method and how the method is used (Crotty, 1998).

3.5.2. RESEARCH METHODS/APPROACHES
3.5.2.1 Data Analysis and Presentation
The aim of data analysis is to extract useful information and develop conclusions. Data was processed during and after data collection. The data collected was edited for accuracy, consistency and completeness. The data was then coded and cross-tabulated to enable the responses to be statistically analysed eliminating errors.
Oral interviews were summarized enabling the researcher to review the notes and employ extensive analysis to answer the question on the summary sheet. The extensive analysis entailed review of published works, documents presented, journals, newspapers and magazines
3.5.2.2 Methods for Data Collection
Data collection is the most important aspect of any type of research study. Inaccurate data collection methods have a great impact on the results of a study and finally lead to invalid research as it was based on the inaccurate data. Care must be taken into account in choosing the methods and the techniques to be applied in data collection. This research has employed a combination of qualitative and quantitative methodology to analyse the data.
1. Qualitative approach is in which the inquirer often makes knowledge claims based primary on constructivist perspectives (i.e. the multiple meaning of individual experiences, meaning socially and historically constructed with an intent of developing a theory or pattern) or advocacy participatory perspectives (i.e. political, issues-oriented, collaborative or change oriented) or both. It also uses strategies of inquiry such as narratives, phenomenology, ethnography, grounded theory studies or case studies. (Creswell.J.J, 2003).
2. Quantitative approach is one which the investigator primary uses post positivist for developing knowledge (i.e. cause and effect thinking, reduction to specific variables and hypothesis and questions, use of instrument and observations, the test of theories) employs strategies of inquiry such as experiment and surveys and collect data in predetermined instruments that yield statistical data. (Creswell, 2003).
Descriptive analysis has been adopted in analysing the quantitative data where theories are tested in cause-and-effect order. Establishing the frequency distribution to know the achieved score of each variable is how analysis of the descriptive data was carried out. The achieved score determined the characteristic of the examined variables. The Lakert scale was used. The Likert scale is some kind of rating scale developed to measure attitudes of respondents directly (McLeod, 2008). This was achieved by asking people to respond to a series of statements about a topic in terms of the extent to which they agreed with them.

3.5.2.3 Data Collection Techniques
Information you gather can come from a range of sources. Likewise, there are a variety of techniques to use when gathering primary data. Basing on the research objectives of this thesis and related aspects under investigation and identification of the data needed, various techniques have been employed. Listed below are some of the most common data collection techniques used for collecting data during this research.
Literature
Review
Interviews
Questionnaires and Surveys
Observations

I. Literature Review
This method enables the researcher to make the best use of previous work in the site/field under investigation, and hence to learn from the experiences, findings and mistakes of previous researchers who have carried out similar research project.
The literature review helped to prepare the background to the study, forming research problem, objectives and the outputs which are expected from the study. Literature review consists of official documents, published papers, general research reports and books in the topic area. Analysing and reviewing those documents, the researcher explores theories and concepts related to the topic and examine generalizations that might apply to the issues being considered. This method was used also to get some information related to the expropriation practices here in Rwanda
ii)Questionnaire
The questionnaires, which were both structured and unstructured, were the main instruments uses to collect data from Transport Company and some state institutions in charge of transportations services. The structured and unstructured questionnaires were used to gather information about respondent’s opinion on the study and it enabled large information to be collected from a larger number of people within a short period of time. We used questionnaire to gather the data to identify the gap and how to fill the existing gap Road infrastructure maintenance. Questionnaires was an English for flexible to the community. We went on the field our self for collecting data and clarifying the questions so that the data collected was viable.
iii. Interviews
In this research we used in depth interview to have verbal conversation with local community in
depth-interviewing is a conversation with a purpose (C.F.Cannel, 1957). This technique we enabled us to have an oral verbal stimuli and oral verbal response with
various experts, include state institutions, local community and private sector that have transport services in all their activities. Interviews may be useful as follow-up to certain respondents (Mcnanamara, 1999).
These interviews were used in the data collection because it allowed both open and closed ended
questions to be asked. This technique makes free the respondents to express themselves at length and for their views to be solicited but also limited the freedom given to the respondents thereby avoiding time consumption. To have a decent work done, we let the respondents know the purpose of the study and that it is for purely academic and very confidential. The permission from the respondent was a prerequisite for us before getting the required information from them.
Iv. Site Visit (Observation)
In addition to obtaining information on the affected people of Kimisagara sector, site visit was conducted across Kimisagara sectors in Nyarugenge district where the project was supposed to be held. This involved the general site view and it allows the dynamics for both research and affected people in order to be familiar to the site, introduction to the local authorities and citizens who have been affected by the project in order to identify overview of the area and to get additional information about the effect of road infrastructure maintenance in Kigali city for social economic development. Through this methods of data objectives of this research. This was undertaken in order to increase the knowledge and familiarity to the areas.
3.6 METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS
3.6.1. Data processing
After collecting the data from the field, the researcher did the data processing for minimizing errors and removal of mistakes that provided data with accuracy and reliability.
1. Editing: consists of examining the collected raw data especially in surveys to detect errors and omissions and to correct these data when possible. The researcher reviewed the information collected to see if they are related to the current situation of this case study.
2. Coding: refers to the process of assigning numerals or other symbols to answers so that responses can be put into a limited number of categories or classes. Such classes should be appropriate to the research problem under consideration.
3. Classification: this is a process of arranging data in groups or classes on the basis of common characteristics. In this case data having a common character are placed in one class in other to entire data get divided into a number of groups. This helped the researcher to group data according to different criteria to assess such as lifestyle of community, income, expenditures, public infrastructure etc.
4. Tabulation: this is a process where raw data are summarized and displayed for further analysis. In other word tabulation consists of ordering and arranging data in columns and rows, the researcher was used simple tabulation because he expected that he did not get more information required the use of the complex one.
3.6.2 TOOLS OF DATA ANALYSIS
During data analysis, the researcher used excels and SPSS as the tools that helped him to clarify wrong and right data and produce the true answers.
Microsoft excel was used to carry out the appropriate quantitative calculations and presentation of the research data. The statistical package for social scientist was used to analyze the data collected. The analyzed data is presented in graphs, tables and narrative form. The researchers used excel for all graphics and charts as the Excel has the advantages to produce a high quality charts and graphs that help the researcher to analyze well the data in clear manner.
SPSS was used for data entry, data analysis and to produce output of these data. This is better as it eliminates the wrong information and also helps the researcher to crosstab more than one variables while analyzing the data.
3.6.3 DATA PRESENTATION
Data presentation is the way of arranging information got from the field in the manner that is easily understandable. That presentation enables researcher to organize their data in way that allowed researcher to do data analysis and interpretation of data.
Well organized data facilitate the job of the analyst as he has understood what is in data collected without employing too much effort; it become easier for him to decide what tools or approaches to be used in data analysis. So the researcher used tabulations, frequency graphs, etc. for enabling him to analyze either qualitative or quantitative data and researcher try to organize common information in one statement once it was difficult to be included in tables. Qualitative data were presented in different tables with quantitative data for avoiding vagueness (Ray, 2010).

CHAPTER 4 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1 INTRODUCTION
The previous chapter on the literature review speaks mostly the cases and the situation abroad; in this chapter it’s focused the answers to the different questions from the interview are put together and analyze each question to determine the similarities and the differences. The sub questions are also broken or split into main themes such as what is the status of road infrastructure maintenance in Kigali, what are the existing techniques for maintaining road infrastructure in Kigali and the possible solution in order to explore the best techniques or approach that can be used. The concept driven from the interview is categorized according to the research problems model. The main concern of this chapter is to analyze the data collection the population that can be used for their impact of road infrastructure maintenance on social economic development. The analysis aims or intended to describe whether there are the approaches or techniques used in the maintaining the road in leading for strong life of road and suggest the possible solution once the gaps are found or originate.
4.2 DATA PRESENTATION
Data presentation is the way of arranging information gotten from the field in the manner that is understandable easily. That presentation enables us to organize our data in the way that will allow us to do data analysis and interpretation of data. so, we use tabulations, graphs, histograms, frequency graphs, etc. for enabling us to analyze either qualitative or quantitative data and we try to organize common information in one statement once it is difficult to be included in tables. Qualitative data is presented in different tables with quantitative data for avoiding vagueness.
(Chaleunvong, 2009).
From the 75 questionnaires which were dispersed or distributed for the population 68 were retuned back and used as valid for response, questionnaires are distributed to the professional informants including professional engineers, academic professional, questionnaires for professional formants like MININFRA, RTDA, all of the questions the researcher asked have aim to answer the sub questions of this thesis seen in the first topic of this thesis. The detail of each question and its related in this chapter it is shown here

Table 1 distribution of respondents
Affected people of Kimisagara Professional informants Total

Total sample
65
5
70
Source: Field survey, (May, 2018)
The above table shows the total sample size that the researcher has asked in gathering the primary data where the 65 are the affected people of Kimisagara sector like Residential property, Commercial properties users of the road, 5 are the professional formants like Nyarugenge district, Professional for academician, RTDA staff.

Table 2 DISRTIBUTION OF RESIDENTS AFFECTED BY TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE IN KIMISAGARA SECTOR.
respondents in Kimisagara affected by research Frequency Percent Valid percent

YES 54 79.4 79.4

No 14 20.6 20.6

Total 68 100.0 100.0
Source: Field survey, (May, 2018)

The table shows that 54 out of 68 are respondents said yes from participants and 14 out of 68 they said no from participants but they said same impact that affect them for road maintenance.
This means that 54 results from respondents who said yes because it reduce the cost of transport when is well maintained and another 14 results from respondents they did not agree about that comment but they give us their ideal where the road it increase traffic congestion.
Maintaining the road assist the users to obtain the different job and it prevent the poverty because of availability of security this will attract the investors.

Figure 5 participant affected by research in Kimisagara sector

Source: Field survey, (May, 2018)
The above figure6 shows that 54(79.4%) results from respondents who said yes because it reduce the cost of transport when is well maintained and 14(20.6%) results from respondents they did not agree about that comment but they give us their ideal where the road it increase traffic congestion. This result is the evidence based on the facts that the selection of the respondents was based on the simple random sampling and decision of research who conduct the research. It shown that what contain in this research is true on their knowledge and experience in conduction the data about the maintaining of the road.

4.2.2 The impact of road infrastructure development on people lives in Kigali.
Table 3 the impact of road maintenance on the people live in Kigali
Frequency Percent Valid Percent
Valid reduction of accident 32 47.1 47.1
increase of security 36 52.9 52.9

Total 68 100.0 100.0

Source: Field survey, (May, 2018)
The result display above in table 3 shows that 32 out of 68(47.1%) of respondents their result in the impact of road maintenance in Kigali city is reduction of accident in the road where another 36 out of 68(52.9%) is result commented that the impact of road maintenance it increase the security for the people who are using that road and it facilitates mobility of commodity and connection of various cities to development .of course when there is enough of security there is reduction of accident in the road this was help the researcher to conduct information well.

Figure 6 the impact of road maintenance on the people live in Kigali

(Source: Field survey, (May, 2018)
The Figure 7 shows that 32 out of 68(47.1%) of respondents their result is reduction of accident in the road because it is well maintained and increase the customers mobility another 36 out of 68(52.9%) from respondents commented that it increase the security for the people who are using that road and it facilitates mobility of commodity and connection of various cities to development .of course when there is enough of security there is reduction of accident in the road this was help the researcher to conduct information well.
For both comment from respondents where the increasing of the security and reduction of accidents this is not only the some important of road maintenance but there is other important like increasing of the income from the tax to the government, the attraction of investors and it connects the different region for transportation however the presence of positive impact of the road to the people it is not means that it is clear the problems there are some problems which affect the people from road maintenance it is shown below the following analysis table and graph.
4.2.3 The problems of road maintenance have been faced the society
Table 4 the problems that faced the people from road maintenance

Frequency Percent Valid Percent

Valid
poor maintenance
27
39.7
39.7

high accident
41
60.3
60.3

Total
68
100.0
100.0
Source: Field survey, (May, 2018)

The above table 4 shows that 27 out of 68 of respondents their comments for the road maintenance is poor for maintained and 41 out of 68 other respondent their result the problem faced them is high accident due to the inefficiency of size of road which is not maintained it cause the high an incident accidents for the user of the road.
For the results from respondents who said that during rainy season there is presence of destruction of drainage system from the road it damages their properties due to the poor maintenance of the road and addition to that the techniques material used its insufficiency and inadequate of funds to finance the road some time the investors who are hired to through by contract they did not perform their responsibility to fill their obligation for maintaining the road well hence this leads the presence of problems from poor maintenance.
And the results from the Respondents who said the high accident always the un proper road maintenance leads the increase the high accidents where there is no enough space during the rush hour people they lose their life and their vehicles lost due to the poor road maintenance.

Figure 7 the problems that faced the people from road maintenance in Kimisagara

Source: Field survey, (May, 2018)
Base on display above figure 8 the results from respondents are conducted together by researcher to analyze for the outcomes problems in percentages in both results from respondents where 27 out of 68 of poor maintained percentage is 39.7% and 41 out of 68 of high accident their percentage is 60.3% this show that the results of respondents for problems of road maintenance leads high accidents is more than the result from respondents who commented on the poor maintenance.
Everybody need to use road which is well maintained because it help us to get the satisfaction of where we require to reach but due to the some problems arising from poor maintained we have seen there is some suggestion about that problems could be solved. The bellow table shows some suggestion come from the respondents during our field survey research.

4.2.4 The suggestion to increasing the performance of road maintenance in Kigali city.
Table 5 suggestion for road maintenance for the people live in Kimisagara sector
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Security 33 48.5 48.5 48.5
Control investors 35 51.5 51.5 100.0
Total 68 100.0 100.0
Source: Field survey, (May, 2018)
The above table 5 shows the results from respondents where 38 out of 68 is the security as the suggestion for the increasing performance of the road maintenance in city of Kigali and in social economic development in Rwanda and 35 out 68 is result comment of respondents for control investors.
the 33 respondents commented on their own suggestion that having well day today cleaning and control well road and weight of the high truck that cross over the road and expanding the size of the road this increase the security for the users and it leads long life span of road to be strong and the other 35 respondents on their side they said that the government must control the local investors because they did not fill their responsibility to finish their agreement with government to maintaining well the road hence to control the local investors which is hired by the government institution it help the social economic community development.
Figure 8 Suggestions for road maintenance for the people live in Kimisagara sector
Source: Field survey, (May, 2018)
The above figure 9 shows that the percentages for respondents for results that they was commented on their suggestion for who the raising the performance of the road maintenance in Kigali city. The researcher conduct that data where 33 out of 68 (48.5%) for the security and 35 out of 68 (51.5%) for the control investors as the suggestion from another respondents.
To control investors through supervising it day today it reduce the problems rising in the maintaining the road

4.2.5 The estimation rate the road maintenance provided in Kigali city.
Table 6 the estimation rate that the road maintenance provided in Kigali city
Rates percent Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

60%
16
23.5
23.5
23.5

65

18

26.5

26.5

50.0

50%

26

38.2

38.2

88.2

40%

8

11.8

11.8

100.0

Total

68

100.0

100.0
(Source: Field survey, (May, 2018)
The above table it shows estimation rates that the respondents given during field survey where 16out of 68 their percentage is 60%, where the 18out of 68(65%), where 26 out of 68 (50%), and 8out of 68(40%). This indicates that the highest frequency of 26 it shows the high number of respondents in compere to the others who are commented on the rate of road infrastructure provided in Kigali city.
According to the report from ministry of infrastructure there is rate of road maintained from 2003 to 2013 it agreed that The condition of the classified road network
and bridges in 2003 is as follows: paved roads: good condition, 23%; acceptable, 37%;
poor condition, 40%; ii) dirt roads: good condition, 10%; acceptable, 40%; poor condition,
50%. As regards bridges, 30% are to be reconstructed, 35% to rehabilitate and 25% require
small maintenance operations.
Figure 9 the estimation rate that the road maintenance provided in Kigali city

Source: Field survey, (May, 2018)
The figure10 above shows the results from the respondents where their different estimation rate of the road maintenance are provided in Kigali its help the researcher to conduct them, 16 respondents commented on the rate of 60% road be provided, 18 respondents commented on the rate of 65%road provided, 26 respondents commented on the rate of 50% road be provided, 8 respondents are commented on the rate of 40% road to be provided.
According to the road maintenance fund (RMF) is an institution established by the law no 49/2013 of 28/06 2013 and published in the official gazette of Republic of Rwanda, to ensure collection and funding the maintenance of the road networks in Rwanda. The project was thoroughly examined from the technical standpoint and is coherent with
the PRSP and the CSP for Rwanda. Its negative impact on the environment will be insignificant
and can be controlled. The project is economically viable with an internal rate of return of about
19.60% for the road and 14.46% for the bridge. The sustainability of investments is ensured, in
particular by: the existence of second generation road maintenance fund (RMF) whose resource
mobilization capacity, of about FRW 3 billion per annum, may be increased in order to better

cover needs which are currently estimated at FRW 12 billion and rural population’s
commitment to undertake manual routine road maintenance for rural roads.
4.3 PROFESSIONAL INFORMANTS
4.3.1 NYARUGENGE DISTRICT
The data obtained from one of the partner of city of Kigali engineer is about the challenges that
Road infrastructure maintenance faced which may include: painting, climatic changes (weather changes) in addition to that there is also lack collaboration between city of Kigali’s technicians and those of from contractors and supervision team engineers. And city of Kigali has a contractual implementation with NPD as contractor and also with STIFCOM as supervisor in order to achieve a well sustainable road infrastructure maintenance routine supervisions have been done to ensure that any defect arising can be solved immediately without wait for reactive maintenance. So they adopt most effective and efficient means of maintenance which is preventive maintenance which will help them to cut down costs that is supposed to be incurred during the break down of any road or asset.
4.3.1.2. About the methods used in the road maintenance
According to the NPD Company methods used to maintain the road those methods are the following:
Routine maintenance: this method they used day to day typical activities include roadside verger ,cleaning and cutting, cleaning of silted ditches and culverts, patching, and pothole repair for gravel road this leads the road to be resisting in long life.
Periodic maintenance: These operations tend to be large scale, requiring specialized equipment and skilled personnel. They cost more than routine maintenance works and require specific identification and planning for implementation and often even design, Activities can be classified as preventive, resurfacing, overlay, and pavement reconstruction. Resealing and overlay works are generally undertaken in response to measured deterioration in road conditions. For a paved road repaving is needed about every eight years; for a gravel road re-graveling is needed about every three years
4.4 FINDINGS ON THE METHODS THAT CAN BE BEST TO USE FOR ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE MENTENANCE.
Below they are the approach/methods that are the expert are suggested to use in order protect well the road .based on their skills and knowledge.
Routine maintenance: this method they used day to day typical activities include roadside verger ,cleaning and cutting, cleaning of silted ditches and culverts, patching, and pothole repair for gravel road this leads the road to be resisting in long life.
Periodic maintenance: These operations tend to be large scale, requiring specialized equipment and skilled personnel. They cost more than routine maintenance works and require specific identification and planning for implementation and often even design, Activities can be classified as preventive, resurfacing, overlay, and pavement reconstruction. Resealing and overlay works are generally undertaken in response to measured deterioration in road conditions. For a paved road repaving is needed about every eight years; for a gravel road re-graveling is needed about every three years

Table 7 the distribution of respondents who participants for the use of methods of road maintenance and another who did not participated.
Participants in research Methods of road maintenance have been applied
Routine maintenance method Periodic maintenance method No of responses Total
yes Count 7 2 5 68
%Participant 52% 12% 36% 100.0%
% of methods have been used for road maintenance 23% 7% 22% 52%

No Count 3 1 5 9
% participant 52% 12% 36% 100.0%
% of methods used for road maintenance 10% 2% 36% 48%
Total Count 36 29 5 70
% participant 63.0% 58.3% 36% 100.0%
% of methods used for road maintenance 100.0% 100.0% 100.% 100.0%
Source: Field survey, (May, 2018)
The table above summarized the question which was asking the respondents in field survey, what methods/ technique should be used in road maintenance and the suggestion who did not participate. Among 70 respondents who have asking during this theses, only 68 (52%) respondents have been participant to accept the use of technics/methods for the routine maintenance and periodic maintenance approach it is used in day to day and certain period of time and 9(48%) respondents did not accept the use of this method but they gives their suggestion that the government should be give the quality one without renewal again

4.4.3 Suggestion about the approach used for maintaining the road in Kigali city
Table 8 suggestion from respondents about approach used in road maintenance
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
valid Routine maintenance 23 48.5 48.5 48.5
Periodic maintenance 35 51.5 51.5 100.0
Total 68 100.0 100.0

Source: Field survey, (May, 2018)
The table above shows that 23 out of 68 respondents they suggested that routine maintenance is necessary for used daily because it reduce the damages of the road from deterioration the capacity of road increase in long time and also resist during the environmental factor during rainy season and 35 out of 68 their suggestion to maintain by requires schedule periodical which help them to maintain monthly, year in order to protect well the road.

Figure 10 suggestions from respondents about approach used in road maintenance

Source: Field survey, (May, 2018)
The figure above shows that 23 out of 68(48.5%) respondents they suggested that routine maintenance is necessary for used daily because it reduce the damages of the road from deterioration the capacity of road increase in long time and also resist during the environmental factor during rainy season and 35 out of 68(51.5%) their suggestion to maintain by requires schedule periodical which help them to maintain monthly, year in order to protect well the road.
This methods we have seen above it always used in the maintaining the road and is based for giving the highest and best quality of road for the users which is attract the investors and leads the economic development for the different cities .below we are summarized the all findings we have been taken during our research survey.

4.5 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND THE DISCUSSION
4.5.1 FINDINGS
The research sample was 70 respondents who made up from 65 affected people from Kimisagara sector, and 5 from informants like 1 authority Nyarugenge district, 1 authority of RTDA, 3 authority professional engineers.
The concern of this thesis is to assess the effects of road maintenance on socio-economic development. Road maintenance increase accessibility for connecting business individual they interact for each to anther and also their commodities, and when the road is well maintained it reduce the high accidents to the users and the society , the security increase and also it increase the sense..
Conclusion, is better when there is participation of organization of community for maintaining of the road because they will conserve well as their own due they participate on it. this will develop the social economic in country
4.5.3 Discussion
According to the results from respondents 43% said that public sectors(government) always should be intervention because it will reduce for these problems and also the community led initiative to prevention of any damage on through using routine maintenance.
Contribution of experts to the road maintenance in social economic development
In contribution of academia to making the road maintenance more impactful, 23% respondents their results said that academia should make more research on new maintenance techniques .these should be simple techniques everyone can afford and also the role of contribution for experts that are aware of the existing problems and are capable of thinking out of the box to solve those problems with little expanses as possible this will reduce the traffic and the damages of the road due to the contribution of them
The contribution of rod maintenance funds (RMF) as institution to financing the project of road maintenance the existence of second generation road maintenance fund (RMF) whose resource
mobilization capacity, of about FRW 3 billion per annum, may be increased in order to better
cover needs which are currently estimated at FRW 12 billion and urban population’s
commitment to undertake manual routine road maintenance for urban roads.
Positive impact of road maintaining
74% respondents said that it facilitate them movement, mobility of commodities and connection of various cities development, commercial service development in areas which are located within the maintenance road, as well promoting balance of regional development.in that road infrastructure promoting the development of real estate which acts as an engine for economic growth in Rwanda and all over the world’s cities. Road infrastructure is not only led property development also is part of real estate which serves as both public and economic good.

NEGATIVE IMPACT OF ROAD MAINTAINING
26% respondents commented that the poor maintaining of the road resulted from unexperienced of engineers, during the rainy season the drained water pool the road surface this this reads the high accident and the people live near the road the high drained water from poor road maintained distracting their properties and their live and sometime this problem it hinder the government plan.

CHAPTER 5: GENERAL CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This final chapter presents overall conclusion and recommendation which are based on the findings of this theses. These are geared towards the addressing issues a risen in research questions and consequently objectively of this study. It presents summary of findings, as regards to the main objectives of the study. Conclusion were drown based on the findings and some recommendation on the way of forward done.
5.2 CONCLUSION
The analysis from this study that concerns on assess the effects of road maintenance on social economic development and its impact of road maintenance to the people it varies according to the situation of giving the proper well road maintenance to the society. The Definition road maintenance, concepts of different terms used. The possible approaches/ methods that could be used in road maintenance and will affected the people are: routine maintenance and periodic maintenance when they need protect the role of the road on them. The big issues we have found is that insufficiency municipal funds for financing in projects of road maintaining , disorganized of community when there is no clear road and non-participatory methods in maintenance this led them to repeat again in that issues.
In the summation road infrastructure play a lot role on both social and economic aspects such as bringing people to interact so the relationship can increase, development of local markets which will solve the problem of shortage so that exchange become easily ,also road infrastructure can the movement of people from one location to another. Road infrastructures need to be maintained rather than to upgrade because road maintenance keeps road in good conditions and continues fulfill what was designed for. So states all over the world should understand maintenance activities and its difference from development, and also states need to allocate more funds in road maintenance activities.
The purpose of this thesis is to explore methods that are used and to find out the factors that could leads problems from road maintenance to the people.

5.3 LIMITATION OF THE RESEARCH PERFORMANCE
During our data collection period we are faced with a lot of hindrances which includes the following:
Budget constraints due to this limitation we were unable to survey all the targeted group and even we distribute less questionnaires.
Time limit due to the problem of time we have selected a few sample from the study group in order to get at finish point and save resources.
Another limitation include respondents who were available due to multitasking. Due to this issues we were unable to reach where we have targeted to get data.
Another limitation most of institutions it is not easily to get the expert we have targeted to obtain data from. So this becomes a serious issue which makes it difficult to obtain a reliable data.
Most of our respondents like taxi driver never have enough time due to the nature of their work. This also limits us to get data from them.
5.4 RECOMMENDATION
There should be modification in the formulation of policy related to road infrastructure maintenance
in the country to day top bottom approach does not achieve the required outcome and fails to meet local community expectations. The bottom-up or demand driven approach should be the most approach that provide the requirements of dwellers.
Government should establish concession agreement for the purpose to enhance public private partnership and then state remained the power to put subsidy in road infrastructure maintenance. Due to this it would be more effective and sustainable to maintain roads and also productivity increases.
Proper pricing there should needed for efficient and sustainable road infrastructure maintenance. It is vital
for financing of maintenance service delivery, as we know roads include among both economic goods and public goods.
Road infrastructure amendment cannot be achieved in the absence of an efficient regulatory system. Governments all over the world are transforming their infrastructure sector to better meet the needs of consumers and regulatory reform is an essential part of this process. A good regulatory system must serve the interest of consumers. In this respect, the need to separate operation of facilities and regulation of service quality is very central. The regulatory authorities must be able to regulate the reliability and output of infrastructure providers.
There should be a well strained and strong project management team. Management of any project is one of the key success of project that is why we need a good project management team in order to control budget as well time for the completion of project.
There should be collaborations between state bodies such as RTDA, MININFRA, CITY OF KIGALI and other institutions that have responsibility of maintaining roads in their attributions.
There should be collaboration between government institutions with donors like World Bank and ministry of finance in order to have a well budget allocation.

References
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Sally Burningham and Natalya Stankevich https://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTTRANSPORT/…/TRN4_Ro….. Retrieved on 2oth June 2018 Bryman &Burgess (1987) analyzing qualitative data.http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/144078339503100309.retrieved on 12thJanuary 2018.
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REMA (2009) www.re Enhancing Road Maintenance in the OIC Member statesma.gov.rw/…/eia/ei sector guidelines for environmental impact assessment (eia) for roads development projects in Rwanda. www.rema.gov.rw/…/EIA/EIA%20G ORKNEY (2013-2018) Development and Infrastructure
Roads Management and Maintenance Plan. www.orkney.gov.uk/…/Development%20and%20Infrastructure/Ro… Retrieved on 1st June 2018

World Bank (2005) Why road maintenance is important and how to get it done
Sally Burningham and Natalya Stankevichhttps://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTTRANSPORT/…/TRN4_Ro….. Retrieved on 2oth June 2018 .
Bryman &Burgess (1987) analyzing qualitative data.
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/144078339503100309.retrieved on 12thJanuary 2018.
World Bank (2015) Improving environmental Sustainability in road projects. https://www.openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/21563. Retrieved 0n 5thfebrualy 2018
University of Wisconsin-Madison (2002) Pavement Surface Evaluation and Rating.www.apa-mi.org/docs/Asphalt-PASERManual.pdf. Retrieved on 15thmarch 2018.
MININFRA (2009) Rwanda national construction industry policy. rha.gov.rw/fileadmin/user…and…/Final_Rwanda_NCI_Policy_FINAL_13082009.pdf. Retrieved on 20thmarch2018
Chalmers University Of Technology (2012) Assessing Transport Infrastructure
Sustainability.publications.lib.chalmers.se/records/fulltext/219183/local_219183.pdf. Retrieved on 23rdmarch2018.
World Bank (2016) IEG ICR Review Independent Evaluation Group.documents.worldbank.org/…/ICRR14912-ICRR-PUBLIC-P079414-Box396265B.pdf. Retrieved on 28th march 2018.

MININFRA (2012) Public Transport Policy and Strategy For Rwanda.
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COMCEC (2016) Enhancing Road Maintenance in the OIC Member States. www.kalkinma.gov.tr/Lists/Yaynlar/Attachments/699/Road%20Maintenance.pdf. Retrieved on 12thApril.

Acosta. (2014). The Netherlands imposes a motor vehicle tax based on the vehicle’s carbon dioxide emission level.
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Campbel, J. (2014). the granular material Granular materials which are saturated with water will lose 90% of their strength resulting in pavement failures.
REMA (2009) www.re Enhancing Road Maintenance in the OIC Member Statesma.gov.rw/…/EIA/EI sector guidelines for environmental impact assessment (eia) for roads development projects in rwanda. www.rema.gov.rw/…/EIA/EIA%20Guidlines/EIA%20Guidelines%20Road%20Constr… Retrieved on 10thmarch2018 .

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Creswell.J.J. (2003). The researcher collects open ended emerging data with the primary intent of developing themes from the data .
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Currie. (2005). The primary data are data that were previously unknown and which have been obtained directly by the researcher for a particular research project .
et.al, F. (2010). Common sense suggests that modern economies cannot function without infrastructure.
MININFRA (2013) Transport Sector Strategic Plan.
EDPRS2. www.minecofin.gov.rw/…/sector_strategic_plan/Transport__SSP_June_2013.pdf. Retrieved on 1st June 2018.

Gairhe, B. R. (2013). the main function of road is for easy transport for good and servise and persenger between destinations.
Kothari. (1990). In it, we study the various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem along with the logic behind them .
Kothori. (2004). “those which are collected afresh and for the first time, and thus happen to be original in character.
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Helm. (2010a). Customers of regulated utilities are also voters, potentially with an incentive to lobby politicians to renege on sunk costs .
Alfred.J (1890). Economics focuses on the behavior and interactions of economic agents and how economies work.
Karen. (2013). Data collection is a systematic approach to gathering information from a variety of sources to get complete and accurate picture of an area of interest .
Fond, M (2013). Case study research enables you to investigate important topics not easily covered by other methods. .
Mc Leod. (2008). The Lakert scale was used. The Likert scale is some kind of rating scale developed to measure attitudes of respondents directly .
Mcnanamara. (1999). This technique we enabled us to have an oral verbal stimuli and oral verbal response with.
Mukankomeje. (2009). the organic law no.04/205 of 08/04/2005 determined the modalities of protection, concervation and promoting of enmvironment for road infrastructure in Rwanda .
MININFRA (2009) Rwanda national construction industry policy. rha.gov.rw/fileadmin/user…and…/Final_Rwanda_NCI_Policy_FINAL_13082009.pdf. Retrieved on 20thmarch2018.
Chalmers University Of Technology (2012) Assessing Transport Infrastructure
Sustainability.publications.lib.chalmers.se/records/fulltext/219183/local_219183.pdf. Retrieved on 23rdmarch2018.
World Bank (2016) IEG ICR Review Independent Evaluation Group.documents.worldbank.org/…/ICRR14912-ICRR-PUBLIC-P079414-Box396265B.pdf. Retrieved on 28th march 2018.

MININFRA (2012) Public Transport Policy and Strategy For Rwanda.
www.mininfra.gov.rw/…/Public_Transport_Policy_and_strategy_for_Rwanda_02.pdf. Retrieved on 8thApril.

COMCEC (2016) Enhancing Road Maintenance in the OIC Member States. www.kalkinma.gov.tr/Lists/Yaynlar/Attachments/699/Road%20Maintenance.pdf. Retrieved on 12thApril.

APPENDICES

APPENDIX1. The Sample Questionnaire for Experts.

SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE AND BUILT ENVIRONMENT (SABE)
ESTATE MANAGEMENT AND VALUATION (EMV)
Dear Respondent,

The questionnaire is designed to study the impact of Road infrastructure maintenance on social economic development in Rwanda. Due to your keen of knowledge and information on
infrastructure development, you have been selected to participate in the study. The questions are meant for research and academic purposes only and confidentiality of information will be maintained. Thank you for your cooperation and time.

SECTION I: THE BACKGROUND INFORMATION
1. Gender
Code 1 2
Gender Male Female
Ticks

3. Level of Education
Code 1 2 3
Level Bachelor’s
Degree Post
Graduate Other Specify
Ticks

SECTION II: IMPACT OF ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE ON COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT
1. What is the importance of road infrastructure?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. Does road infrastructure development change the wellbeing of Kigalians? If yes how? If No, why?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
3. Do you think roads maintenance can increase a positive impact of roads infrastructure on wellbeing of the community? If yes how?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
4. What is the contribution of academia in making road maintenance more impactful?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

5. SECTION III: STATUS OF ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE MAINTENANCE IN KIGALI .What is the existing techniques for maintaining road infrastructures in Kigali?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
6. Are the current maintenance techniques strong enough to positively influence a socioeconomic development? If yes, how? If No, what should be done?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
7. What are the major problems related to road infrastructure maintenance? ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

APPENDIX2. Sample Questionnaires for Residents

QUESTIONAIRE/IBAZWA
Appendix II: Questionnaire/UmugerekaII: Ibibazo

Dear Respondent, /Nyakubahwa wowe ubazwa

The questionnaire is designed to study the impact of road infrastructure maintenance on social economic development in Rwanda. Due to your keen of knowledge and information on
infrastructure development, you have been successfully selected to participate in the study. The questions are meant for research and academic purposes only and confidentiality of information will be maintained.
Thank you for your cooperation and time.

Iribazwa rigamije kumenya ingaruka z’imitunganyirize y’imuhanda kubijyanye n’iterambere rusange mu URwanda. Kubw’ubumenyi n’amakuru yanyu kubw’iterambere ry’ibikorwaremezo namwe muhawe umwanya ngo mwitabire iribazwa.
Ibibazo byateguwe gusa kubw’ubushakashatsi.Niyompamvu amakuru muduhaye agomba kugirwa ibanga kubw’umutekano wanyu.
Murakoze kubw’amakuru muduhaye azagira uruhare rwo kubaka igihugu n’iterambere rirambye.

SECTION I: BACKGROUND INFORMATION/ IGICE CYAMBERE: AHABANZA

INSTRUCTION/Amabwiriza:

Please tick (?) where is needed or fill as appropriate/uzuza mbonerahamwe zikurikira ukoresheje (v) ahobiringombwa

1. Gender/Igitsina

Index/Ingingo 1 2
Gender/ Igitsina Male/Gabo Female/Gore
Tick/Kosora

2. What is your age?/Ufite imyaka ingahe?

Index/Ingingo 1 2 3 4 5
Age/Ikigero 15 – 20 20 – 25 25 – 30 30 – 35 35 and Above
Tick/Kosora

3. Level of Education/Urwego rw’amashuli yizes

Index/Ingingo 1 2 3 4 5
Level/Icyiciro Primary/
Amashuli abanza Secondary/
Amashuli
yisumbuye Bachelor’s
Degree/
icyiciro cya kabiri PostGraduate/
Icyiciro cya Gatatu Other Specify/
Ibyiciro bisigaye
Tick/kosora

SECTION II: SURVEY QUESTIONS/Ikusanyamakuru

1. What is the status of road infrastructure maintenance in Kigali?
Imihanda yo muri Kigali yaba isanwa ite?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. What is the impact of transportation infrastructure on community development in Kigali?
Nizihe nyungu ubona zituruka kubikorwa remezo mubijyanye ningedo zok’ubutaka mu mugi wa Kigali?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
3. How does road infrastructure maintenance development contribute to community development in Kigali?
Nigute isanwa ry’imihanda ryagira uruhare mwiterambere ryihuse ry’umugi wa Kigali?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
4. What are the problems linked with roads infrastructure maintenance development in Kigali?
Ni ibihe bibazo bikunze kugaragara mwisanwa ryimihanda mumugi wa Kigali ?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………5. Maintenance is the keeping well of property from damage. From your point of view how do you understand by the term road Maintenance?
Gusana nikimwe mungamba zo kubungabunga imihanda yari yarangiritse.Kurwawe ruhande nigute utekereza kwisanwa ry’imihanda ?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………

6. In Kigali we have been seeing different road infrastructure project under construction .At which rate the road infrastructures are provided?
Umugi wa Kigari harimo imihanda myinshi irimo yubakwa.Ugereranije iyi mihanda yaba iri kubakwa kuruhe rugero?

7. From question (6) what is your point of view in order to increase the performance of road maintained in Kigali?
Ugendeye ku kibazo cya(6) ni namaki watanga kugiranga isanwa ry’imihanda mumugi wa Kigali ritange umusaruro ushimishije kurushaho?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
8. Road infrastructure is of crucial on development of the city. What is impact of road infrastructure development on the people live in Kigali?
Imuhanda ni ingenzi mu iterambere ry’umugi.Ni izihe nyungu zikomoka kukwiyongera ndetse nisanwa ry’imihanda kubaturage baba muri Kigali?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
9. Before the roads maintenance what is the serious problems have been faced to the society?
Mbere yuko imihanda isanwa ni bibazo ki mwagiye muhura nabyo?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
10. According to the policy of RWANDA government >.If Yes or Not explain?
Leta y’U Rwanda ifite ingamba zo guteza imbere ibikorwa remezo kugirango ubukungu bw’igihugu bwiyongere .Nimba aribyo cyangwa ataribyo sobanura uko ubyumva?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………