Home Free Lab ReportsToxic metal-contaminated soils are a major threat to sustainable food security and environment

Toxic metal-contaminated soils are a major threat to sustainable food security and environment

Toxic metal-contaminated soils are a major threat to sustainable food security and environment (Guo et al., 2006; Mahar et al., 2016; Rizwan et al., 2016). Soil contaminated mainly by Cadmium (Cd) is often found close to industrial zones (Li et al., 2011; Lin et al., 2015) with incineration of fossil fuels and municipal waste materials (McConnell and Edwards, 2008; Saha et al., 2010; Wu et al., 2013a), several other man-made activities such as mining (Zhou et al., 2018) tailings (Boussen et al., 2013), use of fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture (Taylor, 1997; Roberts, 2014), sewage sludge, etc are continued key sources of metal deposition in the atmosphere (Burgos and Rainbow, 2001). Cadmium is a very toxic heavy metal and well known carcinogen group (i) substance (FAO/WHO, 2010; (Nordberg, 2006; Nawrot et al., 2015) causing several disorders even deaths in human population when enter in food chain through contaminated food (Hellstrom et al., 2001; Prozialeck and Edwards, 2012; Sommar et al., 2013; Maruzeni et al., 2014). Cadmium causes strong inhibition of essential enzymes in the Krebs energy cycle resulting in heavy fatigue and muscle weakness (Lee and White, 1980; Jarup et al., 1998) damaging nerve cell by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine and activates cholinesterase which results in hyperactivity of the nervous system (Borisova et al., 2011; Wang and Du, 2013; Gong et al., 2015; Naija et al., 2017) contributing to arthritis, osteoporosis and neuromuscular diseases by altering calcium and phosphorus metabolism (Akesson et al., 2006; Lv et al., 2017) replacing zinc in arteries resulting brittle and inflexible cardiovascular system (Tellez-Plaza et al., 2013) interfering digestive enzyme metabolism and affect digestive system (Godt et al., 2006; Wu et al., 2013b) Prostrate issues and impotence in male reproductive system resulted by cadmium-induced zinc deficiency.(Waalkes et al., 1991; Achanzar et al., 2001; Abdelrazek et al., 2016; Li et al., 2016) causing diabetics and delaying growth and development in children (Kippler et al., 2012; Rodriguez-Barranco et al., 2014; Gong et al., 2017; Pizzino et al., 2017). accumulating in kidneys, resulting in high blood pressure and renal failure (Hellstrom et al., 2001; Eum et al., 2008; Gallagher and Meliker, 2010; Sommar et al., 2013; Maruzeni et al., 2014; Kawada, 2018) shifting calcium and vitamin D activity, resulting in deformities and cavities in tooth (Arora et al., 2008; Engstrom et al., 2009) cadmium toxicity also causes zinc deficiency, or to inhibition of acetylcholine release in the brain and associated with learning disorders and hyperactivity (Lee and White, 1980; Ryan et al., 1982; Jarup et al., 1998; Lalor, 2008; Ciesielski et al., 2012).
In China, high levels of Cd concentrations in the soil have been reported in several regions in recent years. (Li et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2015; Liu et al., 2016a; Liu et al., 2016b) and these places the environmental quality of the soil at the hub of the public’s attention (Su and Wong, 2004; Liu and Chen, 2013; Santos et al., 2015; Mani et al., 2016; Palutoglu et al., 2018). Considering the severity of Cd contamination and the importance of a health risk assessment, the Chinese government has conducted large-scale surveys that focused on the soil quality during the last few decades (Sun et al., 2006; Wang et al., 2014; Liu et al., 2016a; Zhao et al., 2018) and taken crucial steps to reclaim soils using phytoremediation techniques (Su and Wong, 2004; Santos et al., 2015; Mani et al., 2016; Tang et al., 2017; Palutoglu et al., 2018). Plants have the natural ability to absorb and concentrate essential elements in its tissues from soil environment (Rozhdestvenskii et al., 1975; Yamaji and Ma, 2014), and this ability of plants can be exploited to remove heavy/toxic metals from the contaminated farmlands (Salido et al., 2003; Xiong et al., 2004; Yanqun et al., 2005). Currently scientists have been emphasized on the screening and identification of fast growing and large biomass yield crops with adequate metal accumulation (McGrath et al., 2001; Liu et al., 2011; Jiang et al,. 2015). Some species, for instance maize (Gajdos et al., 2012), mustard (Lim et al., 2004; Niu et al., 2007) and tobacco (Chaney et al., 1997; Liu et al., 2004) have also been considered for removing pollutants from soil. Sunflower (Helianthusannus) is a high biomass crop and seed oil production demonstrate its potential for the phytoremediation along with agro-production value without any damage to food chain (Kamnev and Van der Lelie, 2000; Madejonet al., 2003; Boonyapookana et al., 2005; Niu et al., 2007). Several sunflower genotypes are rich source of oleic acid (ref). High oleic acid oil generally alters low density of lipo-protein, cholesterol, triglycerides and factor VII coagulant activity that provides prevention form cardiovascular diseases. (ref) Mostly sunflower phytoextraction ability have been studied in pot, soil and hydroponics under controlled environmental conditions (Zou et al., 2008; Nehnevajova et al., 2009; Doncheva et al., 2013; Shaheen and Rinklebe, 2015) but still lack of information persist regarding the selection of high accumulator genotypes with safe and healthy oil production in natural field conditions.
The objective of this field experiment was to (i) assess the high accumulator genotypes of sunflower in two different soils types to recognize these potential genotypes for remediation of the metal polluted lands to make it productive for profitable and economical production for sunflower and other crops (ii) to investigate high quality of oil with permissible limit of contaminants for safe human consumption. The further prospects would focus on the identification of sunflower genotypes metal tolerance mechanism which can be most efficient scientifically and economically for the phytoextraction of heavy metals along with agro-production purposes.

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