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Today world is linked as a network to exchanges the data

Today world is linked as a network to exchanges the data, news and views through Internet. According to Internet World Statistics of specialist as at December 31st in 2011 there was an estimated 2, 267, 233, 000 Internet users worldwide (Anon., n.d.) . While coming to the Things which can be any object or person which can be distinguishable by the real world. Everyday , every time objects include not only electronic devices .we encounter and consume daily and technologically advanced devices and gadgets, but “things” that we do n’t think of as electronic at all. furniture materials ,food, clothing, and equipment, merchandise and specialized items landmarks , monuments and works of art and all the miscellany of commerce, culture and sophistication (L.M. Goncalves,J.G. Rocha, P.F. Rocha, M.P. Silva, and S. LancerosMendez, 2010).The Internet of Things (IoT) provide users to bring physical objects into the sphere of cyber world.
Near Filed Communication (NFC)
Near Field Communication (NFC) is a set of short range wireless technology at a particular frequency (13.56 MHz), typically requiring a distance of 4 cm. NFC technology helps life easier and more convenient for consumers by making it simple to do transactions, exchange digital data, and connect electronic devices even a touch. Allows intuitive initialization of wireless networks and NFC is complementary to Bluetooth and 802.11 with their long distance capabilities at a distance up to 10 cm. It does not depend on on environment , It does n’t need line of sight and easy and simple connection method. It is first innovated by Philips and Sony companies. Data exchange rate is now days approximately 424 kbps. Power consumption of NFC is under 15ma during the data tranfer.
ZigBee is one of the protocols developed for enhancing the features of wireless sensor networks. ZigBee technology is created by the ZigBee Alliance which is founded in the year 2001. Characteristics of ZigBee are low cost, low data rate, relatively short transmission range, scalability, reliability, flexible protocol design. It is a low power wireless network protocol based on the 802.15.4 standard (Chen, X.-Y. and Jin, Z.-G, 2012). ZigBee has range of around 100 meters and a bandwidth of 250 kbps and the topologies that it works are star, cluster tree and mesh. It is widely used in home automation, digital agriculture, industrial controls, medical monitoring & power systems.
Wireless sensors and smart devices can be controlled by the internet anytime and anywhere with the IoT concept. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) mostly seen in detecting events and identifying surrounding information. Since sensors which are in wearable devices are powered by portable battery , recharging the batteries of smart devices by home electricity is very hard to achieve. For the most of smart online operations, energy generating studies have been much attention through the researchers. The researchers said that energy generating technologies could be applied in, alarm sensors, smart meters, smoke detectors and remote controls. There will be 25 billions of Internet connected devices by 2020 according to calculations of statistics specialists . Wireless sensors which are included in IoT devices are connected to a network will gather information about the environment from the sensor terminals. A key requirement for IoT and M2M concept is the ability to locate place wireless sensors in any kind of locations to obtain the necessary signals .In spite of above there is another big issue is the battery use and life or the installation of power distribution by the wire network or the time period for the replacement of battery . It is worst that fixing this a problem with 10-20 batteries or huge battery with large capacity . there are lots of people those are concerns about not only initial costs for battery but also the large scale of maintenance costs .Those facts reasoned for spread the studies about the portable energy generation with the smart wearable devices. solar cells, piezoelectric elements, and thermoelectric elements are used as power generating elements to convert vibration, light and heat into electric power, then use that electric power efficiently. IoT based technologies and wireless networks would be produced now because semiconductors have achieved a point between the improving power generating element and reduction power consumption of active electronic devices. (Anon., n.d.) .The power generating type must be chosen considering the type of energy to be gathered from the environment, whether light, vibration or heat. Mostly solar, piezoelectric, or thermoelectric are used. power IC for use with the power generating element efficiently should gather the electric power from that element without energy loss. The generated power for each energy harvesting devices changes according to the size and the surrounding environment. It is necessary to consider the following. Selecting a power IC which is suitable for the power generating element. Regarding the selection of wireless communication type between wireless sensor network and computer , the selection can be attached for the power generating element. The communication distance, the type of network, the data transmission speed and the power consumption should be analyzed.
ZigBee ,EnOcean and Bluetooth technologies are low power consumption wireless technologies in the present. There is a point to be considered in energy harvesting, identify power generation and power consumption of the device. This is why of the device will not work if the energy generating is smaller than the consumed power of the device. Although the energy harvesting property of power generating devices are developing day by day, it is less possibility supply continuous power to a device . (Anon., n.d.).To overcome this problem generating energy is collected in a capacitor and execute sensor operation at intervals, resulting in a manner which balances the energy harvesting and power consumption. So the designer requires to have an good understanding of the surrounding environment of the power generating area and amount of the power generated and how long it is required.
Smart RF Energy Generating
RF power harvesting (RFH) is seems as a good method for the proactive power replenishment of next generation wireless networks. Unlike other power generating techniques that rely on the surrounding area, RFH can be on demand or predictable and as such it is better suited for supporting quality of service based applications. (Anon., n.d.) .