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To summarize

To summarize, Holmes separates studies on translation within linguistics and gives them independence, autonomy and their own entity, proposing the sovereignty of translation. The expert distinguishes different studies and orders them in three branches: The applied, which reflects methods of translation, the theorical, which explains the phenomena of the discipline, and the descriptive, which consists of the process, execution phase or translated product. Furthermore, the linguist Eugene A. Nida , proposes different systems for translating. The first system is the direct method, in which through a universal linguistic structure, the structure of the source language is transferred to the target language. The second system consists of three phases: first, analysis, where the text is analyzed grammatically, and in words combination. Second, transfer, where the analyzed material is transferred by the translator from the source language to the receptor language. Third, restructuring, where the material is restructured with the purpose of making the final message fully acceptable to the receptor. Therefore, it is important to take consideration in contextual features beside the textual or linguistic features. Translation, like every cultural practice, involves the creation of values, linguistic and literary, religious and political, commercial and educational, and more fields as the particular case may be.