The Work of thyroid gland
The thyroid gland is a vital hormone gland that plays a major role in the growth and development of the human body and metabolism. Thyroid gland assists and help regulates many body functions by constantly releasing a steady amount of thyroid hormones into the bloodstream. The thyroid gland produces more hormones if the body is in need of more energy in some situation, for example during pregnancy, or if the body is growing or cold. The thyroid gland produces three hormones namely as follows, Triiodothyronine, Tetraiodothyronine, and Calcitonin. The only proper thyroid hormones are Triiodothyronine and Tetraiodothyronine. These hormones are made in by follicular epithelial cells of the thyroid. Iodine is the main building block of these two hormones. However, iodine is not produced by the body, and instead, we need to get enough of it from our diet. It is absorbed into the bloodstream from food. It is then carried to the thyroid gland where it is used to make these hormones.
At times our body needs more thyroid hormones, and at some time, the body needs less hormone. In order for the thyroid glands to make the right amount, it needs the help of another gland; called the pituitary gland. This gland tells thyroid whether to release less or more hormones in the bloodstream. A certain amount of thyroid hormones are attached to facilitate transportation of protein in the blood. If the body is in need of more hormones Triiodothyronine and Tetraiodothyronine. Can be released from the protein in the blood. The third hormone known as calcitonin is involved in bone metabolism and calcium. The release of the hormone by the thyroid gland is controlled by the thyrotrophic-releasing hormone. This hormone comes from the hypothalamus located in the brain.
Triiodothyronine and Tetraiodothyronine hormone increase basal metabolic rate. These hormones all the cells in the body work extra hard and therefore the cells need more energy. This has various effect i.e. stronger heartbeat, body temperature increases, food consumed is used up very quickly, growth is promoted in children etc.
Hormone imbalances: Overactive and underactive thyroid gland
Overactive thyroid gland occurs when the thyroid gland makes more hormone while underactive thyroid gland, on the other hand, occurs when it makes fewer hormones. This hormone imbalance may, as a result, lead to serious illness i.e. the size of the thyroid gland may grow large (diffuse goiter). Also, another case is a situation where individual lumps grow in the thyroid gland (nodular goiter).
The Work of thyroid gland