STIGATION ESSAY- ALEXANDER THE GREAT
Access the key features of the life of Alexander that led to the title ‘The Great.’
Alexander of Macedon was one of the world’s greatest conqueror of not only the Persian empire but throughout Ancient history. It started in the age between 359 and 336BC when Macedonia evolved greatly from a backwards kingdom of farmers and herders to a supreme leader of Greece by Alexander’s father, Phillip II. As the descendance of his father King Phillip II, Alexander took the throne at the age of 20 after the assassination of his father; this leaving heavy burden on Alexander as Phillip had conflict between the rebellion of Thessaly. This was shifted upon Alexander as he took this matter into his own hands and continued his father’s legacy to conquer the Persian Empire. Alexander was fuelled with his father’s success and throughout Alexanders short life Phillip drove Alexander to greater and greater things while Alexander thought by doing this he was to be as good as or even greater than his father Phillip, the legend who gained domination over all of Greece by military and diplomatic power, in which lead the laying of foundations for its expansion under his son.
BODY 1: MILITARY
After Phillip’s assassination, Alexander had accomplished restored peace throughout Macedon and conquered and gained dominion over his repair. By the age of 30 he was the ruler of the highest empire ever known conquering the Persian Empire as a whole, from Greece to India. Alexander achieved this through many series of battles, resulting in being undefeatable. Alexander was an extraordinary leader and described as a military genius; and he does this with the ability to plan and strategize on the large-scale tactics to conquer with brutally in which determined his success in many cases. He also had a natural talent for politics as so his father, enabling him to forge his own empire. With this his astonishing achievements led him to the title “Alexander the Great”.
His father was not the only influencer; in 343 B.C King Philip hired the famous Greek philosopher Aristotle to tutor Alexander at the Temple of the Nymphs at Meiza. Over the course of three years, Aristotle taught Alexander philosophy, poetry, drama, science, politics and the wonders of Greek culture and mythic tales. Aristotle also inspired Alexander with a love of Homers Iliad, the story of the Trojan wars and heroes; in particular Achilles. Achilles the great warrior inspired and empowered with great influence the sort of role model of being the absolute best and nothing less of that to strive on top and to take on that same glory on the battlefield of which Alexander craved fame for.
Alexander inherited advantages from his father Phillip one of which was the strongest army in the world. This helped Alexander detrimentally going into conflict with the Persians as they were often poorly equipped, weakly structured and of doubtful loyalty to their emperor. The Greek and Macedonian phalanxes on the other hand were extremely well-disciplined and equipped with heavily armoured spearmen and they stood strong against light infantry especially Alexander’s cavalry. With determination, great courage and bravery, exceptional military genius and an Alexander’s unwillingness to ever accept that something could not be done gave reason for why his army believed his obligation as a mighty ruler, so they were not easy to be overpowered. Furthermore, Alexander always stayed and lead in front of his soldiers. This conveys the Macedonian assurance with Alexander and the bravery and great audacity. He also allowed conquered territories to retain their current leadership and treated them generously. Alexander was successful militarily because of these factors in which holds his name titled ‘The Great’.
BODY 2: FATHER’S LEGACY
Alexander’s father Phillip II of Macedon created a found legacy. A legacy carried though after the assassination in 336BC where Alexander succeeded the throne after Phillip built a strong and unified kingdom. Philip was a military genius and his achievements where overwhelming. With diplomacy and ruling force Philip conquered most of Greece with Phillip being a rough womanising soldier and being a ruthless politician with aggressive politics he put into place when he created the state of Macedonia by taming the regions unruly tribes and created his army to be the best of the world.
After the Golden Age had long past, the empire turned to a weak collection of torn and divided city states. Phillip II of Macedon reformed the professional Macedonian army being the first to have developed this method of utilising the Macedonian phalanx and invented the expertise of using the hammer and an anvil tactic which was performed as an attack method when Alexander was outnumbered by enemy forces. Alexander also utilised his father’s technique with the sarissa which was a 4-6 metre long spear used in the Macedonian phalanxes to overlap the army with weaponry. This modification and strategy strengthened the Macedonians strongly and resulted in the victories he achieved.
Philip was held hostage for 3 years at Thebes by the Greeks between 368 and 365 BC and form an alliance with Macedonia securing peace with the Greeks. While hostage Philip observed the military techniques of then the greatest power in Greece. Philip assigned himself “Commander of the Greeks”, as he was already commander of the conquered Illyrians and Thracians and were now obligated to uphold and follow the commands of Philip the Macedonian king.
He returned to Macedonia in securing his newest conquest to strengthen and reorganize the Macedonian army but in 359 BC, the Macedonian army suffered with a devastating defeat of 4,000 Macedonian soldiers laying death along with the king on the battlefield a devastating defeat killing. Philip was next to ascend the Macedonian throne and he did this in the most difficult time of when the country was virtually on the erg of collapse. Phillip had reformed the Macedonian army and invented technology being the hammer and an anvil tactic. This reform and strategy won strengthened the Macedonians strongly.
Alexander’s father was about to travel to Asia and already had plans for his conquest to invade the Persian Empire, which would crown his career as world conqueror before his death. Alexander now has the opportunity to overtake and carry Phillip’s role in success of conquering the Persian Empire. Alexander was fuelled by his father’s ambition and took on the this shot to prove he is the greatest of all kind.
Philip significantly made the military a way of life for the Macedonian men and by doing this it became a professional well-paid occupation unlike the past while to the soldiers would have to contribute to part time farming to earn a dependable amount of money. This allows the army to be more dependent on Philip, so he knew he could rely on his army.
Alexander was lucky he inherited his father’s legacy and claimed an army who possessed many brave, strong generals who greatly contributed to Alexander’s success. These included Antigonus who managed Macedonia and oversaw Greece, Cassander, Seleucus, Parmenion, Cleitus, Hephastion. Alexander was also quite fortunate that there were no Greek rebels at the time when Alexander was out to conquer Persia. This meant Alexander could focus on his campaign. This system was also a key factor that led to Alexander’s military and political success.
BODY 3: LASTING LEGACY IN MEDITERRANEAN
Alexander the Great created a new era in history and his legacy and influence over the world has even impacted us today. After Alexander’s death he left behind over 25 cities that stood with his name. He founded Alexandria in Egypt and was seen as a god to many and had developed his influences into cultural aspects after every victory, also educational uses of ancient world has helped develop the understanding and of modern society. After Alexander overthrew Persian King Darius III and conquered the Achaemenid Empire, Alexander left behind one of the largest empires of all time, stretching from Greece in the west to India in the east. However, he did not have anyone of any kind in line of the throne before his death in which resulted in a series of political wars in which split his empire apart, which led to the establishment of Selucid and Ptolemic empires ruled over 200 years by Diadochi until the Romans defeated.
Alexander the Great’s impact on Western Civilization was substantial. As a result of his conquests Alexander had spread Hellenistic being Ancient Greek culture throughout the Middle East and South Asia. This being a major factor Alexander strongly commands 100 Macedonian officers to marry as Alexanders way of merging east and west by intermixing cultures, Greek language, religion, artistic influences of art, statues and sculptures and worshiping new gods to destroy the classical Greek civilisation creating an evolution to unite and seal his Empire to rule as his own in total.
With such a short life span of 32 years Alexander life showed evidence he was the great conqueror to ever live. The legacy in which he left behind is substantially legendary and his passion, drive and brutal gut to never stop till he’d become greater than that of his father and to be the greatest to name stamped in history. Alexander also created the development of Greek civilisation into an evolution, in which was influenced worldwide. Alexander does this in a way that stimulates the history of modern society today; he created his empire, a leader and influencer with a long lasting legacy named Alexander “The Great”.
In a military perspective Alexander was held a legacy that would never be a dark side to Alexander. He was brutal and fought for glory and many of the things we would consider as the worst traits in humanity were manifested in alexander. Although Alexandra was merciful for his enemy’s surrender. But cruel if he was opposed revealed techniques by the influence from Homers Iliad. Alexander refined the art of brutality and this is what determined his success in many cases he had not conquered the way had he not resulted in with brutal tactics.
Alexander the son of Olympias was brought up with the belief and fascination by the thought he could be more than mortal and was a descendant of the heroes and gods for example Achilles. With the influence of his military and political genius and skills from Alexander’s father Phillip II and the powerful teachings of Alexander’s mother Olympus driving his attitudes resulted in his personality to be quite obscure. Alexander was a wise man, murderer a psychopath and military genius. He had great charisma and force of personality, but his character was full of clashes. However, he had used with the ability to motivate his army and conquered a heavy campaign to do achieve the unthinkable.
After Alexander’s campaign “The Great” marches back to Babylon after 20,000 miles of bloodshed and conquest to his pursuit of internal glory was at the final. On the 10-11th of Jun 323 BC at the age of 32 Alexander laid on his death bed after a 11-day battle with Malaria. Marking his tragic death Alexander had accomplished great legacy and legendary deeds and in overall Alexander brought east and west together and forever changed the ancient world.