Platonic anamnesis – A reminder of the feelings that the soul would have known in an earlier existence. The soul is immortal
For Plato, only rational and scientific thinking allows the soul to completely escape bodily bonds.
Menon – The theory is illustrated by Socrates, who asks a slave on geometry. At first he gives the wrong answer; when he is shown this, he is puzzled, but by asking questions, Socrates helps him get the right answer. This is meant to show that while the boy was not given the answer, he could have come to the truth just remembered what he already knew but forgot.
Phaidon – Plato presents a way of living that allows overcoming the deceptive nature of the body through catharsis. The body and its senses are the source of error; knowledge can be regained only through the use of reason, contemplating things with the soul (noesis)
Cartesian Ineism – The philosophical doctrine based on the acceptance of innate ideas
Descartes, like Plato, are prominent philosophers in the development of ineism and the notion that the mind is already born with ideas, knowledge and beliefs
1. However, Plato’s vision is quite different, because for him the exercise of intelligence is theoretical, without a palpable effect except on his thoughts and his interlocutors.
2. Descartes casts doubt on what he feels is not safe and rebuilds the foundation of knowledge by putting himself at the base. Plato does not want to question one’s beliefs, but to try to extend his knowledge.
3. The main difference is that Plato uses his senses together with his reasoning to judge the world. Descartes states that the senses are deceptive, and knowledge can only arise through reasoning.