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Get out the microscope, because were going through this poem line-by-line. Lines 1-2 Let me not to the marriage of true mindsAdmit impediments. Love is not love This poem opens with one of the most famous lines ever Let me not to the marriage of two minds/ Admit impediments Sure, it sounds nice but what does itmean Is he talking about a real marriage If so, whos getting married What impediments Gaaah Yes, there are a lot of questions just in this one declaration but relax, well walk you through it. First of all, the poem alludes to marriage, and to the actual marriage ceremony, which remains basically unchanged the word impediment is lifted straight from the official Church of England wedding service (you might recognize its modern equivalent, the whole speak now or forever hold your peace section of weddings, so frequently used and abused in romantic comedies). However, dont get all crazy and start throwing rice or anything this poem isnt actually talking about a real marriage. The marriage of true minds is a metaphor for true love. Were not sure if this refers specifically to platonic love or sexual love instead, we are intended to see it as capital-L, ideal, perfect Love. Note that the Poet uses the word minds instead of anything more base, like hearts or (heaven forbid) bodies. This is to let us know that this perfect love is the partnership of two thinking, willing individuals, who arent simply driven by emotions or hormones. Finally, the truly genius part of this opening statement comes in the enjambment between minds and Admit by putting the idea of obstruction in the second line, the Poet doesnt even admit thewordimpediment into the same line as the phrase the marriage of true minds. Lines 2-4 Which alters when it alteration finds,Or bends with the remover to remove Here, we see love defined by what itsnot. The repetition here is very significant and very confusing to puzzle out. Lets tackle the first phrase apparently, real love doesnt change (alter) under different circumstances. That is to say, even if the lovers themselves change, or if the world around them does, true love remains constant. The doubled alter and alteration pairing reminds us of what a less worthy sentiment, which we might think of as not-love, is like its changeable, fickle, and all too easily altered. So what about the next phrase What does all that bends with the remover to remove business mean Basically, it makes the above point even more vehemently, claiming that even when someone tries to remove affection, real love doesnt give in and disappear. Faced with difficulties or adversity, love will always survive. Quatrain 2 Summary Get out the microscope, because were going through this poem line-by-line. Lines 5-6 O no it is an ever-fixed markThat looks on tempests and is never shaken Now that weve seen what loveisnt,we learn what the poet thinks loveis. In these two lines, he brings some nautical imagery into the mix (think storms and ships, not anchor tattoos and pirates). In Line 5, he dramatically changes the tone with O no to signal this shift from negative to positive, and immediately launches into an affirmation of loves qualities. It is, as he says, an ever-fixed mark thats easy enough, it just means a marker that never moves. Line 6 emphasizes this steady, solid quality, saying that it weathers storms (tempests) but is never disturbed. What kind of marker is it, though The answer to this question comes in the second half of the quatrain. Lines 7-8 It is the star to every wandring bark,Whose worths unknown, although his height be taken. Here, we discover that the ever-fixed mark that came up in line 5 is a star not just any old star, but the North Star, the only one that never changes position in the night sky. This refers to old-fashioned navigational knowledge before the days of GPS and even reliable maps, sailors would chart their location in the ocean based on the position of the stars. Line 8 also refers to these astronomical ideas. In the Elizabethan period, nobody knew what stars were made of (which is why the stars worth is unknown), even though mariners did know the location of stars in the sky, or their height. Quatrain 3 Summary Get out the microscope, because were going through this poem line-by-line. Lines 9-10 Loves not Times fool, though rosy lips and cheeksWithin his bending sickles compass come OK, new image the poet introduces a familiar figure, that of the Grim Reaper. Hes called Time here, but we can read that not only as hours and minutes, but as age and death as well. Line 9 tells us that Love isnt Times fool that is to say, Love isnt a court jester that panders to the will of Time, despite the fact that the rosy lips and cheeks of a loved one may fade as they age. The bending sickle that swings in line 10 is the scythe that is traditionally pictured in images of the Grim Reaper. Lines 11-12 Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks,But bears it out even to the edge of doom. These last two line of Quatrain 3 sum up the point of the whole poem love doesnt change over time. It endures the passing of time, which is depicted as fleeting and brief, and lasts until the edge of doom, otherwise known as Judgment Day, the end of time, or whatever you want to call it. Couplet Summary Get out the microscope, because were going through this poem line-by-line. Lines 13-14 If this be error and upon me proved,I never writ, nor no man ever loved. The final two lines of the sonnet provide a dramatic and quite bold closing statement. Line 13 uses rather legalistic language to basically say, If these ideas are wrong and anyone can prove that Im incorrect The line poses something of a challenge to readers (do any ofyouhave proof that hes wrong). The final line resolves this challenge through a somewhat complicated twist by saying that the poet has never written anything and that nobody has ever really been in love before if love actually turns out to be less than eternal, the poems truth immediately becomes impossible to dispute. Why Well, ofcoursethe poet has written were reading his poem right now and ofcoursepeople have loved beforetherefore, the ideas posed in the poem must be correct. Its odd logic, but hey, it works. Kind of. Just dont think about it too much. Marriage Symbol Analysis The idea of marriage is present in the background of this poem from the very first line. However, the poet doesnt necessarily define marriage the way people typically do, as a religious sacrament or a legal procedure instead, he emphasizes a more idealistic, transcendent vision of it. The marriage described in this poem is not a formal contract rather, it is a marriage of true minds, a phrase that suggests a deep understanding between two equals, rather than a mere legal bond. In Shakespeares time, marriage was far from an association between two equally powerful and independent people women were basically surrendered into the control of their husbands when they got married. The relationship that Sonnet 116 discusses certainly does not conform to this conventional view of marriage. Instead of talking about the importance of obedience or subservience in married life, it focuses on faithfulness, forgiveness, and equality in any loving relationship. Lines 1-2 The poem alludes directly to the Church of Englands official marriage service before a couple can be officially married, the priest asks the gathered congregation if there is any impediment to the marriage. The poet sees none here. Navigation Symbol Analysis The idea of love as a guiding star isnt a new one, but in this poem, Shakespeare approaches it with a renewed enthusiasm. The poems central extended metaphor is the comparison of love to a star specifically the North Star, which doesnt ever change position in the night sky. This made it particularly important to sailors, who calculated the location of their ships based on the stars. The North Star provided a stable point around which the other stars appeared to revolve, making it central to navigation for centuries. The poet uses nautical imagery to construct the mental picture of love as a star leading all of us through life. Lines 5-8 In line five, the declaration that love is an ever-fixed mark introduces this extended metaphor of love as a star to which we all look. The poet also goes a step further into figurative language land and personifies this love-star, saying that it looks on tempests and is never shaken (6), and later, that the stars worths unknown, althoughhisheight be taken (8). The idea of love as a star guiding the rest of the world really takes off in lines 6 and 7. The tempests that threaten the seas are a metaphor for the challenges that may plague a relationship, like arguments or infidelity, while in line 7, the wandring bark is a metaphor for the lover, being led through the tumultuous sea of life by love. The word wandring also personifies this lost ship, giving us the feeling that its looking for something. Time/Age/Death Symbol Analysis The macabre image of the Grim Reaper was quite familiar to Shakespeares Elizabethan readers. This skeletal, scythe-bearing figure of Death became an icon of European culture in the medieval period, in which death was a horrifyingly present part of everyday life (we can blame the devastating impact of the Black Plague for that). This image of death has stuck with Western civilization ever since, and is commonly invoked in poetry and art to remind us all of our own mortality. However, in this poem, the Reaper (referred to simply as Time) actually loses it turns out that Love is the one thing that can resist the power of death. Lines 9-10 The poet personifies both Love and Time here, claiming that Love isnt just a court jester at the beck and call of Time. This is an allusion to the medieval conception of death as a character known as King Death, an allegorical figure that represented the Black Plague, more familiar to us as the figure of the Grim Reaper, here brought to mind by the mention of the bending sickle (10). Finally, the phrase sickles compass come (10) makes use of alliteration to bring home the idea of passing time the harsh c sounds mimic the ticking of a clock in an onomatopoeic way. Lines 11-12 The his in line 11 signifies that the brief hours and weeks belong to Time, continuing the personification of this concept that we saw in lines 9-10. This notion that Time has no control over Love is emphasized in this line, since the passing of Time has no effect whatsoever upon true love. Navigation Symbol Analysis The idea of love as a guiding star isnt a new one, but in this poem, Shakespeare approaches it with a renewed enthusiasm. The poems central extended metaphor is the comparison of love to a star specifically the North Star, which doesnt ever change position in the night sky. This made it particularly important to sailors, who calculated the location of their ships based on the stars. The North Star provided a stable point around which the other stars appeared to revolve, making it central to navigation for centuries. The poet uses nautical imagery to construct the mental picture of love as a star leading all of us through life. Lines 5-8 In line five, the declaration that love is an ever-fixed mark introduces this extended metaphor of love as a star to which we all look. The poet also goes a step further into figurative language land and personifies this love-star, saying that it looks on tempests and is never shaken (6), and later, that the stars worths unknown, althoughhisheight be taken (8). The idea of love as a star guiding the rest of the world really takes off in lines 6 and 7. The tempests that threaten the seas are a metaphor for the challenges that may plague a relationship, like arguments or infidelity, while in line 7, the wandring bark is a metaphor for the lover, being led through the tumultuous sea of life by love. The word wandring also personifies this lost ship, giving us the feeling that its looking for something. Time/Age/Death Symbol Analysis The macabre image of the Grim Reaper was quite familiar to Shakespeares Elizabethan readers. This skeletal, scythe-bearing figure of Death became an icon of European culture in the medieval period, in which death was a horrifyingly present part of everyday life (we can blame the devastating impact of the Black Plague for that). This image of death has stuck with Western civilization ever since, and is commonly invoked in poetry and art to remind us all of our own mortality. However, in this poem, the Reaper (referred to simply as Time) actually loses it turns out that Love is the one thing that can resist the power of death. Lines 9-10 The poet personifies both Love and Time here, claiming that Love isnt just a court jester at the beck and call of Time. This is an allusion to the medieval conception of death as a character known as King Death, an allegorical figure that represented the Black Plague, more familiar to us as the figure of the Grim Reaper, here brought to mind by the mention of the bending sickle (10). Finally, the phrase sickles compass come (10) makes use of alliteration to bring home the idea of passing time the harsh c sounds mimic the ticking of a clock in an onomatopoeic way. Lines 11-12 The his in line 11 signifies that the brief hours and weeks belong to Time, continuing the personification of this concept that we saw in lines 9-10. This notion that Time has no control over Love is emphasized in this line, since the passing of Time has no effect whatsoever upon true love. Sonnet 116 Rhyme, Form Meter Well show you the poems blueprints, and well listen for the music behind the words. Elizabethan (Shakespearean) Sonnet, Iambic Pentameter Lets tackle the simpler part first the meter. This sonnet, like all of the other sonnets, and like Shakespeares plays, is written in iambic pentameter. This is a fancy way of explaining the consistent da-dum, da-dum, da-dumrhythm of the lines every line has five two-syllable feet (yes, thats what theyre actually called), or iambs. Penta means five in Greek. Each of these feet is one of the da-dum thedumis stressed. Altogether, every line has ten syllables five iambs times two syllables per iamb ten syllables total. A perfect example is line 5 (italicized syllables are stressed)Ono Itisanev-erfix-edmarkNow that weve got the meter down, lets take a look at the form. Sonnet 116 is, well, asonnet. The sonnet, a fourteen-line poetic form that originated in medieval Italy, made its way over to England through the very popular poems of Petrarch, an Italian poet, and Ronsard, a French one. These European sonnets followed a rhyme scheme referred to now as the Petrarchan (or Italian) sonnet. However, once it got to England in the sixteenth century, British poets started to shake things up a bit.Shakespeares sonnets are all written in a different rhyme scheme than their Continental predecessors. The so-called English sonnet is divided into three quatrains (stanzas of four lines each), which in turn each have two rhymes. The whole poem follows the rhyme scheme A-B-A-B/ C-D-C-D/ E-F-E-F. In our example, minds and finds are the a rhyme in stanza 1, and love and remove are the b rhyme in stanza 2, mark and bark are c, while shaken and taken are d, et cetera. Finally, the last two lines (13 and 14) are grouped together as a couplet, and rhyme with each other if they were added on to the scheme we wrote out above, they would be G-G (proved and loved in Sonnet 116). Shakespeare wrote so many sonnets of this form that we now commonly call it the Shakespearean sonnet.The final characteristic of the sonnet is the turn, or volta. These are really just fancy words for a simple shift in gears, which usually happens in the first line of the third quatrain, between lines 8 and 9, when some change in ideas enters into the poem. This sonnet is no exception to this rule the turn occurs at Loves not Times fool (9), where the image of love as a guiding star is suddenly replaced by a personification of love as an eternal, everlasting force that resists death, introducing the idea of the immortality of love. Speaker Point of View Who is the speaker, can she or he read minds, and, more importantly, can we trust her or him This guy has been through the wringer with love, and emerged with a clearer understanding of it. Hes absolutely certain that the vision of love he depicts here is the right one, and hes willing to stake his reputation as a poet on it. We get the feeling that the Speaker has experienced what he thinks of as the marriage of true minds, also known as true love, that his love remains strong, and that he believes that its eternal. What with all the ships and stars and stormy seas that fill the landscape of the poem, we imagine him in full-on, rather melodramatic Elizabethan poet mode, gazing out to sea with fiery eyes half-hidden beneath a floppy, feather-bedecked velvet hat, cursing fate and vowing his undying love to some distant loversomething along the lines of the end ofShakespeare in Love. You get the picture. We suspect that hes been there and done that, and is now relating what hes learned from life to a younger listener.However, before you give us all the credit for this brilliant analysis, we should come clean this isnt justourinterpretation of the Speaker (well, except for the floppy hat). Actually, its a common view of the relationship between Poet and addressee. In Shakespearean circles, theres a general consensus on the appearance of several figures in the sequence of sonnets. They arent exactly characters, which is why this info doesnt appear in the Characters section. Theyre more like theideasof people, rather than actual people.The first is the Poet, identified as Shakespeare, but not necessarily directly aligned with him (the poems may or may not be autobiographical). The next figure that we see is the so-called Fair Youth, the subject of Sonnets 1-126. These sonnets are addressed to a young man, whose relationship to the Poet is somewhat unclear some people read these sonnets as expressions of platonic love and affection, while others have questioned whether or not there are clues to a gay relationship here. FYI, the two final figures, who dont relate to our discussion of Sonnet 116, are the Dark Lady, a mistress of the Poets (Sonnets 127-154), and the Rival Poet, who appears in Sonnets 78-86. Sonnet 116 Setting Where It All Goes Down Well, we cant put our finger on a real setting for this poem for an obvious reason there isnt one. There are no events that take place, and no actual places referenced at all. However, the poem does create a specific imaginary space, through its key use of nautical imagery. The poet creates a vivid scene in the minds of his readers by conjuring up the mental picture of a storm-tossed sea, a lost ship, and, above it all, the calm, unchanging, and dependable polestar. This dramatic scene provides a kind of visual metaphor for the poems interpretation of love as a guiding light above a troubled world. Sound Check Read this poem aloud. What do you hear This poem manages to sound both consistently rhythmic and conversational, formal and casual, planned and spontaneous. Faithful watchers ofLaw and Orderor any other courtroom drama might recognize this mash-up of different tones from the masterful and persuasive arguments often featured on such programs we usually see them delivered by attractive and brilliant lawyers (or rather, attractive actors portraying brilliant lawyers). Here, we might imagine the poet in this role, delivering a well-crafted, carefully paced, yet still accessible argument to a jury of readers.The poems meter, iambic pentameter, becomes very apparent from line 3 onwards (take a look at Form and Meter for more on this), creating a certain feeling of consistent pacing, but certain elements of drama, like the O no in line 5, break it up and remind us that this is a real person talking, not a machine. Just like any good appeal to a jury, the poem uses clear and simple language to get its point across, and to illustrate its claims. Finally, the concluding couplet (which even engages legal language in the phrase upon me proved 13) is an ideal closing statement bold, challenging, and memorable. Case closed. Whats Up With the Title None of Shakespeares sonnets actually have titles instead, we just refer to them as the numbers of their order in the sequence, or, in a few cases, by their famous first lines (if you just say the words marriage of true minds to any English teacher, well bet she can identify this poem immediately but dont take our word for it, try it). The sonnets appeared in this order in their original printing, way back in 1609, and this sequence hasnt changed since. William Shakespeares Calling Card What is the poets signature style Clarity, consistency of form, and in a word perfection Theres a reason Shakespeare isShakespeare, if you get our meaning. You dont become the most famous and widely beloved poet of the English language by writing shoddy, confusing verse. Working within the strict, somewhat stiff constraints of the sonnet form, he produced poems that are simultaneously high-flown and down to earth while theydoemploy what we all think of as Shakespearean language you know, the whole Doth thou thinkest me not a wondrous poet kind of thing the sonnets are notable for their frankness and clarity. This one in particular is recognizable for its very simple language (for Shakespeares time, that is), elegant structure, and logical flow. Tough-O-Meter Weve got your back. With the Tough-O-Meter, youll know whether to bring extra layers or Swiss army knives as you summit the literary mountain. (10 Toughest) (3) Base Camp Okay, sure, its Shakespeare that means there are some ten-cent words and an antiquated image or two, so its not just sunshine and lollipops. However, of all the Shakespeare works out there, this is one of the most straightforward and accessible its clear message and almost contemporary, simple language drive its point home. Sonnet 116 Steaminess Rating Exactly how steamy is this poem G For a love poem, Sonnet 116 is awfully chaste. It deals more with the emotional side of the L-word, rather than its physicaler, consequences. The poet defines an idealized marriage of two minds (2), a relationship that may or may not be physical. Sonnet 116 Theme of Love Everyone has a different definition of love, and this sonnet offers an optimistic take on it. Love here is seen as a truly powerful, unstoppable force of nature. Its the only constant in a tumultuous and confusing world, and its a guiding star for all of us who are lost out there. This idealized view of love is timeless and still relevant to culture in our fast-moving 21st century world. Fans ofThe Princess Brideor more recently,Across the Universe,among gazillions of other examples, will recognize this theme in movies, music, books, blogsor, basically everywhere. Questions About Love How realistic, in your opinion, is this view of love Other than immortality, does the poem suggest any of loves other possible characteristics Do you think the poem specifically refers to romantic love, or are there other kinds of love it might describe Chew on This Try on an opinion or two, start a debate, or play the devils advocate. Sonnet 116 is commonly invoked as a definition of idealized romantic love, but it can be extended to apply to any form of love. Sonnet 116 Theme of Loyalty As far as Sonnet 116 is concerned, loyalty plays a key role in true love actually, theonlysignificant role. The poem asserts that the true marker of love is its persistence without constant devotion, love is not love. A lot of difficulties can arise when two people who love each other, but if their feelings are real, none of these things should matter. In the ideal world of the poem, true lovers always forgive each other and stay together, regardless of the circumstances. Questions About Loyalty The poem alludes to a specific kind of marriage in the first line how might we differentiate this from the legal idea of marriage The poem claims that love that changes when people change isnt actually love at all. Do you agree or disagree with this idea What kinds of tempests might the poet be referring to in terms of human relationships Can love persist even if one of the parties involved is not loyal Do you think that true love, as the poem claims, is actually both reciprocal and eternal Chew on This Try on an opinion or two, start a debate, or play the devils advocate. Sonnet 116 suggests that true lovers remain loyal, despite any tempests that may strike their relationship. This includes even, paradoxically, infidelity. Sonnet 116 Theme of Mortality Mortality in this poem, if not anywhere else, is a non-issue. While Time is usually seen as a force of destruction, which wreaks havoc with basically everything we mere mortals do, it doesnt have an impact on the true power of Love in this poem. Though age and decay may affect the beauty of a loved one, Sonnet 116 claims that real love perseveres in spite of this, and continues to live on until the edge of doom (12), otherwise known as Judgment Day. Questions About Mortality In your personal reading of the poem, does true love last until every persons individual doom (death), or until DOOM (the end of time) Do these different interpretations of this word change the meaning of the poem The idea of immortality appears overtly in line 12, but what images introduce this concept earlier in the poem Though God is not mentioned, the idea of the edge of doom, or Final Judgment, is a Christian one. Does religion play any role in this poem Chew on This Try on an opinion or two, start a debate, or play the devils advocate. The description of Time as brief leads readers to believe that Love is not subject to Time rather, the opposite is true, and Time is rendered insignificant in comparison to Love. Sonnet 116 Theme of Literature and Writing We see the problem in logic presented at the end of this poem the poet boldly dares everyone else to prove his idea of love wrong, saying that if its false, then hell never have written a word. The problem is, he puts this challengein writing. Clearly we cant possibly deny that he wrote anything, since the poem is right there on the page to prove it, and always will be. Confusing, we knowand also very clever. Hes basically ensuring that nobody can actually step up to the plate and challenge him. By using his own body of work as proof here, the poet makes it impossible for naysayers to claim that hes wrong about love. This also does an interesting thing for poetry itself by wagering his poems in this challenge, the poet also implies that literature is just as immortal and just as important as love. Questions About Literature and Writing Is literature, as presented in this poem, also immortal Why does the poet wager hiswritingon this definition of love, rather than anything else, at the end of the poem What is the significance of the last-minute appearance of the idea of poetry in the closing lines of the poem Why introduce it at all Chew on This Try on an opinion or two, start a debate, or play the devils advocate. Poetry is valued just as highly as love in the last two lines of the poem. Sonnet 116 Love Quotes Page 1 Page (1 of 2) Quotes 1 HYPERLINK http//www.shmoop.com/sonnet-116/love-quotes-2.html 2 How we cite the quotes(line) Quote 1 the marriage of true minds (1)The poet concisely defines his conception of ideal love as a bond between minds, not bodies or souls. Quote 2 love is not lovewhich alters when it alteration finds,Or bends with the remover to remove. (2-4)True love never changes or diminishes, despite any challenges it encounters. The confident certainty of love is not love shows us just how sure the poet is of his convictions, and this series of three repetitions emphasizes the negative definitions of love here itdoesntdo any of these things. Quote 3 O no Love is an ever-fixed markThat looks on tempests and is never shaken (5)Love is permanent and unchanging, even though adverse circumstances may arise this is another sign that the love described here might be more of an ideal than a real-life experience. After all, what relationship can emerge from a huge fight totally unscathed Sonnet 116 Love Quotes Page 2 Page (2 of 2) Quotes HYPERLINK http//www.shmoop.com/sonnet-116/love-quotes.html 12 How we cite the quotes(line) Quote 4 Loves not Times fool, though rosy lips and cheeksWithin his bending sickles compass come (9-10)Time (a.k.a. mortality) doesnt command love, the way a king might command a court jester instead, love is always more powerful, even though time takes its toll on physical appearance. Quote 5 Love alters not with Times brief hours and weeks,But bears it out even to the edge of doom. (11-12)Again, the poet reiterates that the passing of time doesnt change love, which is eternal. In comparison to the eternal nature of love, Time seems irrelevant and weak. Quote 6 If this be error and upon me proved,I never writ, nor no man ever loved. (13-14)If we turn this statement backwards, we see that the fact that people have loved before proves that the poets view of love is right. Sonnet 116 Loyalty Quotes Page 1 How we cite the quotes(line) Quote 1 love is not lovewhich alters when it alteration finds,Or bends with the remover to remove. (2-4)People who really love each other always will, even if one or both partners change, or if someone tries to come between them. Quote 2 O no Love is an ever-fixed markThat looks on tempests and is never shaken (5)True love isnt affected by tempests like arguments or other difficulties this also implies that forgiveness, in the ideal world the poet invokes here, is totally complete. Quote 3 Loves not Times fool, though rosy lips and cheeksWithin his bending sickles compass come,Love alters not with Times brief hours and weeks,But bears it out even to the edge of doom. (9-12)True lovers are eternally faithful to each other, perhaps even after death. The edge of doom mentioned here could either be seen as the end of an individuals life, or the end of all life in this world or the next Judgment Day. Sonnet 116 Mortality Quotes How we cite the quotes(line) Quote 1 Loves not Times fool, though rosy lips and cheeksWithin his bending sickles compass come,Love alters not with Times brief hours and weeks,But bears it out even to the edge of doom. (9-12)Age and death have no bearing upon love its immortal, and endures until the end of the world. Sonnet 116 Literature and Writing Quotes How we cite the quotes(line) Quote 1 If this be error and upon me proved,I never writ, nor no man ever loved. (13-14)The poets own body of work serves as proof that his vision of love is the right one. Sonnet 116 Questions Bring on the tough stuff – theres not just one right answer. Does the poems proposed view of love function in the real world, or is it simply a utopian ideal Do you agree with the poets view of love as eternal and unchanging There are many different kinds of love out there, such as romantic, familial, and platonic. Can the ideas posed in this poem apply to all of them The poet implies that love is the only guiding light that we have in this troublesome world. Do you agree or disagree Y, yu),[email protected]
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