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CHAPTER ONE Research Title

CHAPTER ONE
Research Title:
IMPACT OF WESTERN MUSIC VIDEOS IN DRESSING STYLE TO UNIVERSITY STUDENTS
A case study of School of Journalism and Mass Communication (SJMC)
1.0 Introduction:
This study is about analyzing the impacts of western music videos in dressing style to university students particularly at SJMC. In any society there should be development in order to have good welfare of its people and these are university students who will be professionals in various fields for development of our country. But something strange is that university students are the ones who are highly affected by western music videos in their dressing style, the way they wear in these videos is different from our culture students as a result students copy what is portrayed leading to cultural deterioration in dressing styles.

1.1 Background of the study:
Music video emerged as the object of academic writing shortly after the introduction in the United States of MTV (Music Television) in 1981. From the beginning, music video was claimed as the focus of academic study by different disciplines or subfields, leading to evident tensions and territorial disputes in early scholarship. For television scholars in the 1980’s, music television networks such as MTV were seen to confirm the sense that television, with its fragmentary forms and repetitive structures, was the postmodern medium. Beebe et al (2007).

Frith, et al. (1993) The differences in focus between these two collections point to concrete shifts in the cultural status of music videos in fourteen-year interval between the two books, and this reveals important changes in the methods and perspectives brought to bear on them. The book Sound and Vision (Frith, et al. 1993) was conceived in part as a response to arguments made by Jody Berland et al in the Journal of Communication Inquiry all cited under postmodernism, in which the postmodern character of the music video was a dominant theme. Berland’s emphasis on music had already set her apart from those who argued that the defining trait of music video was its exaggeration of certain characteristics of television in general.
Beebe et al (2007) shows the multiple directions in which the study of music video has traveled since the 1990’s. first, music video is set within a longer history of attempts to join image to song, as in Amy Herzog’s article on ‘soundies’, which were musical shorts of the post-world war two period, and Norma Coates study of Elvis Presley’s appearances on television in the 1950’S. Next, the growth of music oriented cable television systems is set in the context of broader technological transformations in the television industry, such as the global satellite broadcasts of music concerts studied by Lisa Parks.
Baran (2006) argue that Media refers to the various channels that used to send information to large group of people, basically media is divided into two types which are print and electronic media. Print media is the eldest form of media which comprises of newspapers, magazines, journals while electronic media comprises of television and radio. Also there is another form which is new media; it came as a result of technological development which led to invention of internet and new media as a whole. New media comprises of websites, blogs, online TV, radio and newspaper, social networks like face book, twitter, instagram, viber, snap chat, jamii forums and other forms of new media.

According to the World Book Encyclopedia volume 19 (1995:110), Television is one of the important vehicle of communication as it is found in electronic media, it brings moving pictures and sounds from around the world to the audience. Television is used to inform the society all what is new to them, something of their interests which can be information about politics, culture, social and economic issues.
World mechanical history of TV goes back in 19th century when Paul Nipkow, a Russian scientist living in Berlin, developed the first workable device for generating electrical signal suitable for the transmission of a scene that people could see. Baran (2006:214).

Stummer (1998) emphasize that in Tanzania television started to appear in the 1990’s where the first television station started its activities, it started in 1994 February known as Coastal Television Network (CTN), Followed by other stations like Independent Television in 10th June 1994 and also Dar es Salaam Television (DTV) in 2nd Dec 1994. Presence of these TV stations its where western music videos were broadcasted to our local TV stations and people of different ages consume the content up to now. University students are the ones who are affected by these videos in their dressing styles since the way they wear is not proper to our local context, trousers below waists, very short mini-skirts are some of indecent wearing styles copied by university students.
Due to the development of science and technology it has now become easy for people to access these videos through internet, there is no need to be in one place either home or anywhere to watch music videos, now it is accessible through YouTube channels, entertainment websites, and blogs at anytime, anywhere.
There are different genres of music videos such as hip hop, R ; B, rock, country, reggae and other genres. What is portrayed in some of these videos is harmful to university students in their dressing styles, improper wearing by music stars, dancers in these videos is not equivalent to our culture particularly in dressing style.

According to Chang (2005), Hip hop is originated in Africa-America and Latino-America communities during the late 1970’S in New York City, U.S Department of State, Hip hop is now the centre of a mega music and fashion industry around the world that crosses social barriers and cuts across racial lives. It has made considerable social impacts since its inception in the 1970’s in Africa-America communities. As hip hop became globally available, it has been widely criticized for spoiling university students wearing styles. Hip hop culture has had extensive coverage in the media, especially in relation to Television where there have been number of shows devoted about hip hop. As a result university students copy the way they wear in these videos and do it in their daily lives.
In Europe, Africa and Asia hip hop began to move from the underground mainstream audiences. In S.A, Poland, Germany, France, Italy and many other countries hip hop stars rose to prominence and gradually began to incorporate influences from their own country, Resulting infusion of new forms like Tanzania bongo flavor and Kenyan genge. By the end of the 1990’s, hip hop was one of the most emerging popular types of music in the world because its culture has spread around the world and it has affected a lot of people such as university students in their dressing styles Chang (2005).

Apart from hip hop music there are also other forms like R & B, Reggae, rap music, rock, country music they also do affect and influence university students dressing styles, Students tend to copy and imitate how music stars wear even if it is not equivalent to our culture.

1.2 Statement of the problem:
Indecent dressing style by university students as it is influenced by western music videos is increasing, is technological advancement act as a catalyst for students to easy access these videos, Discovery of new media has made it easy for broadcasters and consumers to broadcast and receive its content. University students use their smart phones, computers, ipads, tablets to watch and download these videos at any place and anytime. Indecent dressing style by university students is a problem which is caused by western music videos.

1.3 Objectives of the problem:
1.3.1 General objective is to explore whether western music videos affect university students dressing style.

1.3.2 Specific objectives:
To find out to what extent university students dressing style are influenced positively or negatively by western music videos
To find out to which extent university students watch western music videos
To suggest ways under which influences of western music videos to university students dressing style can be eliminated or maintained
1.4 Research Questions:
How often SJMC students watch foreign music videos?
How much students at SJMC are influenced by foreign music videos?
What