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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
Change is unavoidable in organizations today and is of paramount importance to study how change factors affect employees’ performance. Change is what presses us out of our comfort zone and it is inevitable (Sidikova, 2011.Change management can be defined as a style of management that aims at encouraging organizations and individuals to deal effectively with the changes taking place in their work.

Police reforms across the world have been seen as a constant of modern policing initiatives (Savage, 2007). While being under enormous pressure by both state and non-state actors to counter the increasing wave of crime and the new threats to national security, including those emanating from terrorism, the police must operate in accordance with law and respect human rights at all times (CHRI, 2003). However, the history of policing has repeatedly shown that the police have in many occasions maintained and applied an exclusive reliance upon use of excessive force and torture amongst its own clients with whom they are supposed to protect (ibid)
Police transformation and reforms across the world has therefore been shaped by the need for a people friendly, professional service with the ability to secure citizens and their property against aggressors without violating their basic human rights (Lundman, 1980). The police are the most visible institution of the security sector and their reform is vital for lasting human security. Without law enforcement and the sense of workaday safety, security and order that the police can provide, the potential for wider political, social, and economic development dips dramatically. Developing a professional and accountable police service practicing a new style of policing that is responsive to the needs of local communities is increasingly recognized as important for crime prevention. The police are equally important as emblems. A police that is seen to have changed its character, making a break from repressive practices of the past and working in partnership with communities from which it was historically removed, has profound symbolic resonance.The importance attached to police reform as an instrument of crime prevention is evidenced by the rise in organizations attempting to carry it out. Efforts to reform the police and improve their service delivery face daunting political, financial, logistical and historical obstacles.

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In United States of America, the positive shift towards the public perception based police work in USA has found from last hundred years (Renauer and Covelli, 2011). Therefore, American people tend to be in favor of their police force and they rely on police functions for ensuring social justice.

Police service is consistent with the perspectives of serving public interests in Canada where public have strong faith on police service (O?Connor, 2008). Canadian public has high rating of approval of police works and they think police work is fair and visible in the community (Nickels and Verma, 2008). Planned city control measurements have high performance of Canadian police and that brings high satisfaction level of public about police work (Aviv and Weisburd, 2016). Canadian police is highly respected by public because of their fairness and trustworthy behaviour. Local police works with direct partnership with local community represents strong bondage between public and police (O’Connor, 2008). The study of Aviv and Weisburd (2016) represents young people from well educated and high income family has more respect for police and young people with less educated and low income family has low respect for police in Canada.

India is the largest country of South Asian sub-continent with a population of twelve hundred million where two types of police found (Nickels and Verma, 2008). One is the police of the individual state and other is the national police which work under the command of central authority (Madan and Nalla, 2015). There have high level of corruption in the police officials in India but the national police officers have shown their dedication to work (Kumar, 2014). The connection between the public and police is high where police get best support from public to maintain law and order justice. The morality of police officers is high in Japan where many western countries fail to ensure police officers moral activities (Nickels and Verma, 2008).The British police force is popularly known as imperial police because of long tradition of policing in United Kingdom (UK). Most important finding of British Crime Survey (BCS) in 2009-10 represents the public confidence on police work has increased a lot (Barton and Beynon, 2011). The community people inform police about community issues to detect crimes and to protect the crime to ensure social justice (Houdmont, 2012). British people have high level of positive perception about police works and elder persons more than 35 years old have strong confidence on police works (Merry et al., 2012).

The United Nations and foreign governments, especially the United States through the U.S. Agency for International Development, undertook intensive efforts to help the governments of several Latin American countries implement police force reforms in the 1990s. The national functions maintenance and social security maintaining view requires police service where the position of the Police Act (1861) was conceded for ordering the police force in Bangladesh (Uddin, 2009; Bangladesh police branch has range police, special service, crime investigation, railway police, armed police battalion, metropolitan police, highway police and rapid action battalion (RAB) services (Lambert et al., 2010). Police force is responsible for crime control and mass media plays vital role to control police activities for ensuring social justice (Islam and Mahmud, 2015).

In Africa, the quest for reforming African police services was driven by the fact that in the past they had been portrayed as inefficient and in several instances brutal as they were initially created for colonial suppression and providing security to the colonial authorities (Waller, 2010; changing the name of the force from the South African Police to the South African Police Service to reflect the intent to move away from the apartheid era police force to a national police force of the Republic of South Africa that proclaims racial tolerance; The police reform in South Africa has been successful overall, and the performance of the South African Police Service has been relatively satisfactory in terms of both its efficiency and integrity. The country’s community police forums are not as active as expected, in part because it is still expected that the police will take the lead in launching many community policing initiatives.

In Tanzania, the leadership of the Tanzania Police Force headed a review of its operations and the experience of the public with policing, resulting in the comprehensive Tanzania Police Force Reform Programme. In Uganda, civil society worked with the Ugandan Police Force to establish an improved internal oversight unit, the Professional Standards Unit, and a standard complaint form that includes a receipt for the complainant. Additionally, a review of policing coordinated by the Uganda Police Force was undertaken, although the findings have not yet been published publicly. In a great initiative, the Uganda Police Force prepared guidelines to improve prevention and response to incidences of torture and cruel treatment by the police.

In Kenya, there have been several improvements as part of the systemic police reform process: the coordination of the two police services under one Inspector General of Police; In Kenya, although legislation was passed to amend parts of the policing service, there are moves underway to amend this legislation and unwind some of the most progressive reforms, including in relation to police independence and police use of firearms.

Perhaps most importantly, it appears that the commitment to reform and the oversight of the police is lacking from national leaders, including members of the government, parliament and senior police.Despite the good practices that developed or improved since 2006, broadly speaking, the police institutions of all three countries continue to face the same challenges. These challenges must be addressed to build on improvements in policing and to ensure democratic and accountable police services. It is therefore the intention of this study to find the extent of the impact of these internal factors on change management in the Administration Police Service. This study therefore seeks to investigate the influence of organizational change management on the Administration Police Service in Kamukunji Sub County in Nairobi County.

Statement Of The Problem
For many years, the Kenyan context has been characterized by impunity in various forms. This impunities include endemic corruption, embezzlement of state resources ,non compliance with the law and illegitimate political interferences. Its viewed that failure to position the policing debate within the context of state renewal may contribute to limited progress in the security sector.From an analytic perspective of the police reforms undertaken in Kenya since its formation to date its experience is almost similar to that of other post conflict societies in Africa.Despite significant investments in police reforms made by various stakeholders the operational efficiency of the police in relation to the escalation of violence, the overall performance of police has declined markedly (World Bank, 2009). Additionally, studies by the Security Research Information Centre have persistently revealed the underperformance of the police in all public confidence surveys in Kenya with the suggestion that the reforms had not influenced public attitudes towards the police (SRIC, 2009; The concern was that police reform may not have been on the agenda since police reforms begun in 2003(World Bank, 2009). According to CHRI and KHRC (2006),the idea of a reformed police service was boosted in early 2000s when civil societies ,human right activists, the general public and the International community decried the high level of insensitivity and high handedness that the police force used when dealing the public. After the promulgation of the new constitution and the merger of Administration Police and the regular Police ,the government embarked on an ambitious plan of redesigning the two services which included redefining their responsibilities and duties.
The Kenya Police department in general and specifically the Administration Police Services is generally perceived to be resistant to change and cling to outdated organizational cultures that hamper progressive change initiatives within the service. The question is even as the Administration police services tries to transform from a force to a service, it has not achieved the desired changes. It is on this context therefore that the study seeks to investigate the influence of organizational change management on the Administration Police Service in Kamukunji Sub County in Nairobi County.

1.2 Objectives of the Study
General Objectives
To investigate the influence of organizational change management on the
Administration Police Service in Kamukunji Sub County in Nairobi County.

Specific Objectives
To investigate the employee involvement in organizational change management in the Administration Police Services.

To determine the levels of Knowledge sharing in organizational change management in the Administration Police Services.

To investigate the influence of leadership in organizational change management in Administration Police Services.

Research Questions
How employees are involved in organizational change management in the Administration Police Services?
How is organizational change management Knowledge shared in the Administration Police Services?
How does leadership influence organizational change management in Administration Police Services?
Rationale/Justification of The Study
The capacity of Administration Police Services to deliver on its mandate will largely depend on its ability to respond to the rate and direction of change determined by the changes in its operating environment. Since strategic management has been applied elsewhere with success, it is safe to posit that this failure was occasioned by lack of a well implemented strategic management model to drive the reforms. A number of studies have been done on the management strategic change in various sectors in Kenya. Studies have been done on management of strategic change at Plan Inc – Kenya an International Development organization (Muturi, 2006), Civil Service Reform Program in Kenya 1993-2003 in Public sector organization (Nyamache, 2003) and at Proctor and Gamble a Manufacturing company (Nyalita, 2006). Due to contextual, sector, and managerial differences, insights of strategic change management gained from these studies may not be assumed to explain the management of strategic change management at Administration Police services. Therefore, this study seeks to investigate the influence of organizational change management on the Administration Police Service in Kamukunji Sub County in Nairobi County.

Significance of the Study
The study shall be of importance to Kenya Police Services particularly Administration Police Services as a source of information to evaluate itself as an organization. To the strategic management experts who are open to others ideals and concepts the study will provide a framework for understanding the challenges affecting organizational change management in the Administration Police Services in particular and the security Officers in general. To the academicians, the study will provide a useful basis upon which further studies can be undertaken in Police Services particularly Administration Police Services in other sub counties.

Scope
Factors affecting Administration Police organizational change management is a broad field of strategic management. This study seeks to investigate how organizational communication, leadership and knowledge sharing influence Administration Police Services in Kamukunji Sub County. The study targets Administration police officers of all ranks and sex working in Kamukunji Sub County. For the purpose of this study, factors affecting change management will be conceptualized from the following internal factors; Leadership, organizational communication and organizational knowledge sharing.

Limitation and Delimitation
1.7.1 Limitation
This study seeks to investigate how organization leadership, communication, and knowledge sharing influences Administration Police Service in Kamukunji Sub County. The respondents are all employees of Administration Police Services at different levels within their organization and this could cause them to answer the questions from the specific context of their position (ranks) rather than from a holistic perspective. The respondents are all part of Administration Police Services based at Kamukunji Sub County, which does not create a fulsome and diverse sample. In order to obtain findings that are able to be generalized, the researcher should widen the sample frame to a larger number of Administration Police Services from various Sub Counties in Nairobi and Kenya in general.

1.7.2 Delimitation
The study will be carried out in Kamukunji Sub County amongst the Administration Police officers performing general security duties. Similarly, it is acknowledged that there are many factors that Influence and or affect organizational change management. From the literature review and general observations organizational leadership, organizational communications and knowledge sharing will be selected as variables of the study.

Assumptions Of the Study
The basic assumption underlying this study is that by focusing on Kamukunji Sub County, the researcher will sample all the target population. The study will be based on assumptions that all subjects are literate and have basic knowledge on change management in the Administration Police Service.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
This chapter presents the past studies on the factors influencing organizational change management practices and ways of evaluating change management and performance in organizations. The specific areas covered here are strategic management, empirical literature, theoretical foundation and models of change management. The researcher uses both empirical and conceptual literature to explore change management issues within police organizations.

2.2 Empirical Literature
Keeping and maintaining high energy during a major organizational change or a transformation can be a very challenging task to all stakeholders. At first the recipients of the change may exhibit excitement and anxiety but after sometime their interest start depreciating to lower levels and at times to near disillusionments especially when the outcomes don’t meet their expectations. He identified constant change communication, management support(leadership) and knowledge sharing as the major challenges facing organizations in the process of change management (Burke et al 2009). The following are some of the views and studies done by scholars with regard to change management.

2.2.1 Organizational Change Management
Organizational change management (OCM) is a framework for managing the effect of new business processes, changes in organizational structure or cultural changes within an enterprise. Simply put, OCM addresses the people side of change management. Organizational change occurs when a company makes a transition from its current state to some desired future state. Change management is a structured approach to transition individuals, teams, and organizations from current state to a desired future state, to fulfill or implement a vision and strategy (Serkin, 2005). It is an organizational process aimed at empowering employees to accept and embrace changes in their current environment (Kubiciek, Margaret 2006). It involves defining and installing new values, attitudes norms and behaviors within an organization that support new ways of doing work and overcome resistant to change.

Organizational change seems inevitable today, regardless of the extent to which organizationsare ready to deal with it (Bye 2007). These changes occur across the spectrum and include strategic, structural, operational, process and cultural change (Armenakis, Harris, & Mossholder, 1993). Managing organizational change in the context of employees view successfully therefore remains one of the most important focuses of all levels of management, just as embracing and surviving change is important to all employees. Critical change management theorists state that in mainstream (change) management theory, power is circumvented by using euphemistic concepts such as leadership, governance, empowerment, communication and motivation for maximum performance by the employees.

2.2.2 Knowledge Sharing
Knowledge sharing is the process by which employees mutually exchange their tacit and explicitknowledge (Nonaka 2007) in order to create new knowledge. Tacit knowledge resides in the minds of the employees and consists of the”know?how” and skills that individuals have acquired on the basis of personal experience. Explicit knowledge is knowledge that has been written down in manuals or guides in order to be shared or communicated to other employees in the organization, who will then also possess this knowledge without having to have the same experience (Newell et al. Knowledge sharing is intertwined with other knowledge processes including knowledge flow, transfer, learning, distributed collaboration and knowledge creation (Foss et al. 2014). “Knowledge sharing involves a set of behaviors that aid the exchange of acquired knowledge”(Chow and Chan 2008) Knowledge sharing is considered to be an important process of social interaction in organizations (Lin 2007, Van den Hooff et al. At the individual and group level, knowledge sharing comprises both knowledge ‘donation’ and knowledge ‘collection’ (Lin 2007, Van den Hooff et al. At the organizational level, knowledge sharing may be defined as capturing, organizing, reusing, and transferring the experience?based knowledge which resides within the organization and making that knowledge available to all employees (Lin 2007). Knowledge sharing involves leveraging both personal and collective knowledge, and the synergetic articulation of personal into collective knowledge may be facilitated by the adoption of social media platforms (Razmerita et al. 2014). Knowledge is the organization’s most important strategic resource that can provide organizations with a sustainable competitive advantage; at the same time, knowledge management depends on knowledge sharing. Knowledge sharing is affected by multi-level factors: Organizational level, team level and individual level factors; some will promote knowledge sharing, and some will have a negative impact.

2.2.3 Employee Involvement
Employee involvement is creating an environment in which people have an impact on decisions and actions that affect their jobs. The employees make sharing of knowledge about task assignments, customer service, performance outcomes and decisions making, information flow from multilevel, making business plans, competitive conditions, new technology equipments, work methods, ideas for organizational improve-ment, share skill and expertise, share development programs, contribute in solving problems and business operation(Cummings ; Worley, 2003). simultaneously expand to group level and ends at the organizational level (Bock ; Kim, 2002) and thesis explained by Uriarte (2008) as the framework of knowledge sharing consisting of three levels as enablers, levers and foundation. In the change process when employees contribute, the knowledge sharing stage identifies the kind of knowledge that generates the value of organization after that generating the mechanism for that knowledge. The required knowledge is identified for organizational need which is getting from two sources of external as renting or consultancy from other companies or share knowledge by internal source in informal networks among employees who have expertise (Wenger, 1999). This knowledge may be the explicit knowledge which can be easily transferred in documents, databases and manuals and the tacit knowledge is the member’s internals skills, intuitions and memories (Polanyi, 1995). In codification phase the knowledge is stored which would be used by appropriate members but in personalization phase the knowledge is being focused that how to transfer it from person to person. The codification of knowledge is called explicit knowledge which can be easily transferred and personalization is called the tacit knowledge which is not easily transferable
2.2.4 Organizational Leaderships
The motivating change and creating a vision show to the unfreezing or current state of organization is being considered for change, developing political support and managing the transition show the moving stage of change and sustaining momentum shows the implementation and refreezing state of the change. Resistance to change probably effects the change process which will lead to the negative outcomes (Bordia, Hunt, Paulsen, Tourish, & DiFonzo, 2004) while the openness of change of employees have to be focused during change process. Leadership also involves implementing change through developing a base of influence with followers, motivating them to commit to and work hard in pursuit of change goals, and working with them to overcome obstacle to change” (Laura & Stephen, 2002).Leadership type is vital in change process of organizational change. The stakeholders(departmental managers, staff groups, and top level executives) can support change and make broad based support to maximize the risk of success and minimize the risk of resistance in change process by asking “who stands to gain or to lose from the change?” and this will build a relationship for creating the useful influence (Cummings & Worley, 2003).The stakeholders use three methods for motivation in change process, playing it straight, going around the formal system and using social networks (Greiner & Schein, 1988).

2.2.5 Organizational Change Implementation
Kurt Lewin’s model (unfreezing, changing and refreezing)is widely accepted in psychology for implementing change. The implementation of change involves the current state of organization have to be changed into a desired state, but this will not occur quickly but simultaneously. Beckhard and Harris (1987) identified three activities for implementing the change; activity planning, commitment planning and change management structures. The activity planning makes a road map or path for organizational change, events and specific activities must be occurred for successful change. The specific activities involve the integrated change tasks, temporal orient and explicitly tie the tasks according to the organization’s change priorities and goals. The commitment planning identifies the persons and groups whose commitment is required or needed for organizational change for the purpose to formulate and gain their support. The people or groups are political support, the stakeholder’s plans and their commitment for change in process of change. The change management structure identifies the ambiguous, direction, and structure for managing change process. Which includes resources to promote change, the current leadership structure, change consultants, inter-personal and political skills to initiate the change process (Beckhard ; Harris, 1987). The study of Kanter (1983) describes the three stages as information (expertise, technical knowledge, and political support); resources (personnel, materials and funds), and support (legal issues, backing of support, and endorsement).

2.3 Theoretical Literature
This section examines relevant theories to the study variables. According to Kombo and Tromp (2009), a theoretical framework is a collection of interrelated ideas based on theories. It is a reasoned set of prepositions derived from and supported by data or evidence and it accounts for or explains phenomena and attempts to clarify why things are the way they are based on theories. A theory is defined as a reasoned statement which is supported by evidence, meant to explain phenomena (Kombo ; Tromp, 2009). It is a systematic explanation of the relationship among phenomena. Mugenda (2008) defines a theory as a framework of explaining phenomena by stating constructs and the laws that inter-relate these constructs to each other.

2.3.1 Kurt Lewin’s Three Step Change Theory
Vakola and Nikolaou (2004) said this theory is often cited as the key contribution of Kurt Lewin in the world of management psychology and organizational change. To begin any successful change process motivation for change must be generated before change can occur. Lewin came up with three crucial steps in the process of organizational change management the first step being the unfreezing step where Lewin believed that the stability of the human behavior was based on quasi stationary equilibrium supported by a complex field of driving and restraining forces. The key to unfreezing is to recognize that change whether at individual or group level was profound psychological dynamic process. Practical steps to unfreeze include determining what needs to change, ensuring strong support from management.

In the second step which is moving or changing Lewin noted that unfreezing is not an end in itself, it creates motivation to learn but does not necessarily control or predict the direction, Lewin was aware that change is not an event, but rather a process. It’s also really useful to keep communicating a clear picture of the desired change and the benefits to people so they don’t lose sight of where they are heading. In today’s world of change the next new change could happen in weeks or less. This rigidity of freezing does not fit with modern thinking about change being a continuous, sometimes chaotic process in which great flexibility is demanded. Key practical actions that a management can employ here include anchoring changes into the organizational culture, developing ways to sustain the change and providing training and development, and celebrate success.

.According to Burke et al (2009), the final of the three crucial steps is the re-freezing step. As the name suggests this stage is about establishing stability once the changes have been made. The changes are accepted and become the new norm. People form new relationships and become comfortable with their routines. This can take time. In today’s world of change the next new change could happen in weeks or less. There is just no time to settle into comfortable routines. This rigidity of freezing does not fit with modern thinking about change being a continuous, sometimes chaotic process in which great flexibility is demanded. Key practical actions that a management can employ here include anchoring changes into the organizational culture, developing ways to sustain the change and providing training and development, and celebrate success.
2.3.2 Shield’s model
Shield’s (1999) model builds on the idea that when change fails, it is because of insufficient attention to the human and cultural aspects of business. Shields suggest that there are critical components that are necessary for leaders to change an organization. If a change occurs in one component and one does not align the other components, this will lead to inefficient work processes. This system integrates human resources management with business process innovations. Organizational leaders who are considering change should clearly understand which strategies they want to change and define critical success factors so that they will know the extent to which the desired change is possible. Some of the change models do not address this phase of change. Organizations must communicate the strategic objectives to the work force. If this is not done, the transformation effort will be reduced to a series of unrelated change initiatives. Finally, organizational leaders must review each of the work elements to identify their degree of alignment in support of the business strategy (Shields, 1999).Shields (1999) suggests five steps to accomplish change: Define the desired business results and change plans; Create capability as well as capability to change; Design innovative solutions; Develop and deploy solutions; and Reinforce and sustain business benefits. Comparison and Critical Analysis of Change Theories and Model.

2.3.3 Kotter’s Eight Steps Model
Kotter (1998) developed a model which should be used at the strategic level of an organization to change its vision and subsequently transform the organization. Studies using this model have shown that the change process goes through a set of phases. Each phase lasts a certain amount of time and mistakes at any phase can impact the success of the change. The first step is to Create Urgency for change to happen; it helps if the whole organization really wants it. This may help the leader spark the initial motivation to get things moving. Kotter suggests that for change to be successful, 75 percent of an organization’s management needs to “buy into” the change. In other words, you have to work really hard on Step 1, and spend significant time and energy building urgency, before moving onto the next steps. The second step is to form a powerful coalition, the management needs to convince people that change is necessary. This often takes strong leadership and visible support from key 9 people within the organization.
Managing change isn’t just enough one has to lead it. Effective change leaders can be found throughout the organization they don’t necessarily follow the traditional organizational hierarchy. To lead change, one need to bring together a coalition, or team of influential people whose power comes from a variety of sources, including job title, status, expertise, and political importance. Once formed, the change coalition needs to work as a team, continuing to build urgency and momentum around the need for change. The third step is to create a vision for change. Link the concepts to an overall vision that people can grasp easily and remember. A clear vision can help everyone understand why they are asked to do something. When people see for themselves what is to be achieved, then the directives they’re given tend to make more sense.
The fourth step is to communicate the Vision. What the leader does with the vision after creating it will determine the success. The message will probably have strong competition from other day-today communications within the organization, so one needs to communicate it frequently and powerfully, and embed it within everything done. Use the vision daily to make decisions and solve problems. When one keeps it fresh on everyone’s minds, they’ll remember it and respond to it. It’s also important to “walk the talk.” What you do is far more important and believable than what you say. Demonstrate the kind of behavior that you want from others.
The fifth step is to remove obstacles. Change is not always a smooth process so the leader should expect and anticipate resistance at some point .Put in place the structure for change, and continually check for barriers to it. Removing obstacles can empower the people you need to execute your vision, and it can help the change move forward. Step six asks managers to Create Short-term Wins. Nothing motivates more than success. Give the organisation a taste of victory early in the change process.
Within a short time frame you’ll want to have results that the staff can see. Without this, critics and negative thinkers might hurt the progress. Create short-term targets not just one long-term goal. The change team may have to work very hard to come up with these targets, but each “win” that is produced can further motivate the entire staff. The seventh phase is the Building on the Change.
Kotter argues that many change projects fail because victory is declared too early. Real change runs deep. Quick wins are only the beginning of what needs to be done to achieve long-term change. Launching one new product using a new system is great. Each success provides an opportunity to build on what went right and identify what can improve. Step eight is the last stage which is anchoring of the ten Changes in Corporate Culture. Finally, to make any change stick, it should become part of the core of the organization. The corporate culture often determines what gets done, so the values behind the vision must show in day-to-day work. Make continuous efforts to ensure that the change is seen in every aspect of the organization. This will help give that change a solid place in an organization’s culture. It’s also important that organization’s leaders continue to support the change. This includes existing staff and new leaders who are brought in. If you lose the support of these people, you might end up back where you started (Evans et al., 2005).

2.4 Conceptual Framework
2.5 Recap of Literature Review
This three step model gives a manager or change agent an idea of what implementing change means when dealing with people.  The 3 phases of the Kurt Lewin model provide guidance on how to go about getting people to change: a manager will implement new processes and re-assign tasks, but change will only be effective if the people involved embrace it and help putting it into practice it. Lewin’s (1947) change process includes three stages starting with unfreezing. During this phase, the motivation for change needs to be understood and explained to the organization and the staff. The key for leadership during this phase is to develop a compelling message explaining why the old ways of doing things cannot be sustained and provide a vision for the future (Borkowski, 2011).

The second stage is the change itself. During this stage an organization comes to terms with the implications of the change plan and is in the process of transitioning to the new way of doing things. At this stage, employees need to take an active role in the changes and it will become evident if some employees are unwilling or unable to make the necessary changes. This is the stage that includes acting in ways that support the new vision and includes the process of reorienting and setting up new operating practices (“Lewin’s Change Model,” 1996-2014). 
Lewin’s final stage is refreezing which starts once the changes are in place and the organization is beginning to embrace the new way of doing things. At this stage, it is important to manage for consistency so that the changes are internalized by staff, monitored for reinforcement and adjusted if needed. Standard work stabilizes during this stage, allowing employees to feel safe again and develop expertise in their new roles. It is also important to take time at this stage to celebrate the successes of the transition. “This is a critical time in the change process and if the change is to be sustained or “stick” over time, the leader must play a pivotal role during this stage by reinforcing the new behaviors with positive feedback, encouragement, recognition and rewards, or else the change will be short-lived and the employees will revert to their old equilibrium or behaviors” (Stichler, 2011, p. 168).

In contrast, Kotter (1996) describes eight stages of change including four steps that coincide with Lewin’s unfreezing, three steps matching the change stage, and step eight that mirrors his refreezing stage. In step one Kotter describes the need to create a sense of urgency to motivate people to move out of their comfort zone and willingly participate in the change. In order to kick start the change process, the leader must have both a solid business case and be able to inspire an emotional response from employees that convinces them of the need to change. “Leaders who know what they are doing will “aim for the heart.” They will connect to the deepest values of their people and inspire them to greatness. They will make the business case for change come alive with human experience, engage the senses, create messages that are simple and imaginative, and call people to aspire” (Kotter International, 2012).

Steps two through four relate to preparing the vision and the management team. In step two, a powerful guiding coalition is created including people with the power and respect to lead the organization through the change. This team develops the vision and communicates it to the organization, eliminates barriers to the change, and leads the change projects. To be effective, this team needs to have productive group dynamics, effective group decision-making skills, and be able to trust each other (Borkowski, 2011).

Developing the specific vision and strategy to make the change happens during step three. A defined vision helps simplify and clarify the direction of the change so that it makes sense to the minds and hearts of stakeholders. An ambitious but doable vision can motivate employees and guide the direction of the change when linked to a credible strategy and endorsed by senior leadership. Ultimately, the vision needs to be simple enough to be quickly communicated and easily understood. In step four the vision is communicated and spread throughout the organization so as many stakeholders as possible hear, understand and buy into the message. It is important when communicating the vision that the management team presents a unified front and leads by example. It is a powerful message for the organization when the entire management team has a singular message and exhibits consistent cohesion concerning the change (Kotter International, 2012).

The next three of Kotter’s steps coincide with Lewin’s change stage. In step five the management team eliminates barriers, encourages risk taking and helps solve problems. At this stage, structures and behaviors that could undermine the change need to be addressed and overcome. Often the barriers are related to internal company structure or policy and this is the time to realign policies and goals to coincide with the change that is desired. People who are barriers to the change become obvious during this step and need to be managed directly and honestly, calling out their undermining behaviors and setting up clear expectations. Step six drives planning for short-term wins which are visible and clearly related to the planned change. The importance of short-term success is that it motivates people to keep going, shows that sacrifices are producing the wanted results and increases optimism for the future. Small wins diminish the credibility of naysayers and help turn those who were questioning the value of the change into supporters. Management needs to consolidate gains and push forward with the change in step seven. Instead of relaxing after celebrating the small wins, step seven drives more change and consolidating improvements so momentum is not lost. At this stage the change needs to be translated into the culture of the organization to prevent regression. Leaders at this stage need to stay engaged, may add projects to bolster the change, hire addition staff and keep the urgency for the project in the forefront (Kotter International, 2012).

The final step in Kotter’s change model, step eight or “making it stick” coincides with Lewin’s final stage of refreezing. In this step the change is institutionalized so that it is firmly settled into the culture of the organization. At this point, the organization has made the shift, has seen the positive outcomes and has built new structures to support the change (Borkowski, 2011).

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