Employees have and continue to play an integral role in the delivery of services to promote the brand and corporate image of companies. The level of satisfaction that employees enjoy tends to have an impact on the quality of services delivered and the extent of customer satisfaction. This research study is aimed at assessing the impact of employee satisfaction on service delivery in the case of United Bank for Africa. This section includes the background of the study, problem statement, purpose of the study, research objectives and questions, significance of the study, definition of terms and outline of the research project.
1.1: BACKGROUND TO THE RESEARCH STUDY
The increasing effects of globalization have significantly resulted in the increase in competitive markets and volatility in the dynamics of various markets. In view of this, various companies aim to add value to their service as well as improve their service quality in order to have a upper hand in business. Studies including Hill (2007) and Saccania (2007) suggests that by enhancing the operational processes of companies, this will lead to a ripple effect on the level of quality of services provided and ultimately ensure customer satisfaction and profitability.
Research has shown that service quality influences organizational outcomes such as performance superiority (Poretla and Thanassoulis, 2005), increasing sales profit (Levesque and Mc. Dougal, 1996; Kish, 2000; Duncan & Elliot, 2002) and market share (Fisher, 2001), improving customer relations, enhance corporate image and promote customer loyalty (Newman, 2001; Szymigin and Carrigan, 2001; Caruana, 2002; Ehigie, 2006).
According to Boudreau et al (2003), the human resource element of every organization plays an integral role in ensuring high level of profitability through customer satisfaction
The realization of the important role that employees play in the success stories of the organization and how they can positively impact on service delivery which inversely affects customer satisfaction and profits led to the introduction of the human resource management. Employee satisfaction is the entirety of feeling of either positivity or negativity that individuals holds towards his/her job.
An assessment by Panda (2003) identified that the success of a service organisation is highly dependent on the quality of its relationship with customers. Employees are usually viewed by customers to be the service that are provided when they come into contact with them. They are the organization itself in the eyes of the customers and also represent the brand of the organization hence a need for management to ensure that their employees especially their frontline staff who are in constant contact with their customers are satisfied to enhance their service delivery which will have positive impact on the organization.
The frontline employees?, who represent the organization in the customers’ eyes, can have an impact on the image and reputation of the company. When the frontline employees provide good or quality service, the customer’s desires could be met. As a result, the company gains a positive reputation hence that could give them a competitive edge (Wilson et al., 2008).
Kumar Kee and Manshor (2009) identified that excellent customer service is becoming the core competitive advantage in the Banking and Finance industry and it is imperative that employees deliver their services with top notch accuracy and consistency (Oliva and Sterman, 2001).
He again identified that some of the determinants of employee satisfaction and motivation differ per the individuals and they include working conditions, level of pay and benefits attached, leadership style, the task involved or what the job entails, the level of clarity of their job description as well as their perceived fairness in the promotion systems of the organisation.
All these factors if perceived to be good in the eyes of the employees motivates them to strive harder to achieve both individual and organisational goals
The bid to recognize employees and their efforts is important in encouraging employee satisfaction on the job. As a result, the company should recognize the importance of its employees in representing and reinforcing the brand image of the company and delivering the service correctly from the customer point of view. Employees in a service organization and particularly those who have frequent contacts with the customer usually serve as representatives of both the organization and their products or services to the customer at contact point. The quality of the service and the satisfaction the customer may derive will be an assessment of the entire service experience. Employees who are empowered in an organization portray a positive picture to the customers.
Both satisfied customers and employees are assets to the growth and development of business. Hence, management must therefore ascertain that systems are fully functional to ensure that both employees and customers are satisfied. An assertion by Baruch (2008: pp 82-87) emphasized the need for a high level of customer satisfaction through employee satisfaction.
The happier employees seemed within their jobs, the more satisfied they are said to be with significant positive effect on the quality of service delivery.
The definition of service quality is subjective as perception is formed at the moment of truth where the service provider actually delivers the service to the customer.
According to ISO 8402 1986, quality is the totality of the features and characteristics of a product or service that bears on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs.
Joseph Juran (1951), defines quality as fitness for intended use or the absence of error or defects.
Parasuraman, zeithaml and Berry (1985), suggest that it is difficult to evaluate service quality as compared to the quality of products due to the unique features that are inherent in services.
The intangibility nature of service makes it difficult to feel, touch and taste service before it is purchased.
Intangibility makes it difficult to understand how consumers are able to perceive services and evaluate the quality of service (Bitner 1990; Cowell 1989; Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry 1985).
Other features of service include the heterogeneity of services where the service experience varies from provider as customers cannot be assured of the same level of service by the same service personnel and even on different days.
Today, companies recognize that they can compete more effectively by distinguishing themselves from competitors with respect to the delivering of quality service and improved customer satisfaction that results from employee satisfaction.
In view of the above, the research study is aimed at evaluating the impact of employee satisfaction on service delivery in the case of United Bank for Africa.
1.2: PROBLEM STATEMENT
In as much as banks aim to differentiate the services they provide, customer satisfaction and retention has been highly embedded in the satisfaction of the employees delivering the services. Ahiabor (2013) explained that the profitability of banks in Ghana is linked to the performance of its employees in relation to promoting customer satisfaction. Ghana’s banking and financial industry has enjoyed significant growth with an increase in the number of banks sprouting each day. In the wake of increased competition in the banking industry in Ghana, it is essential that banks maintain their high valued customers as well as attracting prospective ones. This situation requires that employees with the knowledge, expertise and experience are recruited, trained and maintained by the banks. In view of this, employee satisfaction is very vital.
In the banking sector, the products and services provided in the industry is averagely similar and therefore banks may engage in several approaches to achieving differentiation from the others to win more customers and achieve market growth. According to Gronroos (2001: pp134), “that almost any retailing bank can provide an individual with retailing services, but not every bank manages to treat customers in a way that they are pleased with.” Service providers therefore seek to attain differentiation from their rivals by offering customers higher quality of services than their competitors. Most organizations perceive the cost of training employees and acquiring other resources that is aimed at satisfying customer needs as prohibitive and waste of resources. Previous studies (Hattori, 1996; Ichino, 2002; Mizuno, 2002; Nosaka, 2003; Sasaki, 1997) have indicated that, a change in employee satisfaction results in a very similar change in customer satisfaction that eventually affect the overall business performance. In other words, it is essential for UBA to sustain a group of highly-satisfied staff who are customer care conscious.
There are lots of theories and information on how organisations can achieve their operational and strategic objectives through customer service but, information on achieving these same objectives through employees who are the organisations’ greatest assets is scanty.
Hence, the need to undertake this research is to dig out more information on the relationship that exist between employee’s satisfaction and quality service delivery.
1.3: RESEARCH AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The research study aimed to evaluate the impact of employee satisfaction on quality service delivery in the case of United Bank for Africa. The following research objectives were achieved by the study:
? To determine the factors that influences employee satisfaction in United Bank for Africa.
? To determine the level of customer satisfaction (as a proxy for quality) in United Bank for Africa.
? To assess the impact of employee satisfaction on the delivery of quality service at the United Bank for Africa.
? To identify and examine organizational and management strategies that contribute to employee satisfaction at United Bank for Africa.
1.4: RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The research questions are designed in line with the outlined research objectives. They included:
? What are the factors that influences employee satisfaction in United Bank for Africa?
? What is the level of customer satisfaction in United Bank for Africa?
? What is the impact of employee satisfaction on quality service delivery?
? What are the organizational and management strategies that contribute to employee satisfaction at United Bank for Africa?
1.5: RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS:
The research study aimed to test for the following null hypotheses.
H0: Employee satisfaction has no significant influence on quality service delivery.
H1: Employee satisfaction has significant influence on quality service delivery.
1.6: RELEVANCE OF THE STUDY
The research study aimed to evaluate the impact of employee satisfaction on service delivery in the case of United Bank for Africa. The findings can be used as a basis for making recommendations to the management of United Bank for Africa to help improve its level of employee satisfaction and service quality.
The findings of the research study can be added to existing literature in the areas of the determinants of employee satisfaction and service delivery. This study will in turn suggest ways to use theories such as Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Herzberg’s motivator-hygiene theories as well as other theories associated with employee satisfaction, motivational techniques and management styles to improve the quality of service delivery and employee satisfaction. The research study also suggested other areas of research study for future consideration.
1.7: SCOPE / LIMITATIONS TO THE STUDY
The research study aimed to evaluate the impact of employee satisfaction on service delivery in the case of United Bank for Africa. In view of this, the findings can be generalized for all employees and customers of the company nationwide.
However, the findings can be limited to United Bank for Africa although the findings may be similar to other banks in Ghana.
The findings cannot be generalized for other branches of the bank in the other countries worldwide. This is as a result of the varying economic conditions and other related factors that tend to affect the patronage of the bank’s services globally.
The level of credibility, reliability and validity of the study will be based on the responses and outcome of the employees and customers of United Bank for Africa who provided with questionnaires to complete as well as the secondary data collected from websites, web blogs, and journals, published articles, books and theses on the issue of employee satisfaction and service delivery.
1.8: ORGANIZATION OF THE THESIS
The research study is made up of five chapters.
Chapter one presents a background to the research study. The statement of problem for the research study is also discussed in the study. The chapter also outlines the research aims and objectives to be achieved by the study and explains the significance of the findings of the research study. The research questions are designed in line with the research objectives. The generalization of the findings and the limitation of the findings are also discussed. A chapter outline is presented and discussed in the chapter.
Chapter Two presented the literature review for the study. The literature review discussed various issues in relation to achieving the research objectives of the study. Areas discussed include the following:
Chapter Three outline the research methodology for the study. The research paradigm and philosophy were discussed to ascertain the most appropriate research method for the study. The research design, methods of sampling, types of data collection methods, sources of data, qualitative and quantitative methods of research, data collection, population, sampling frame, sample size, methods of data analysis and research ethics were discussed in the chapter.
Chapter four presented the findings of the research study with the aid of tables and graphs. A discussion of the findings of the data analysis is presented in line with previously discussed literature.
Chapter five of the research study presented the conclusion to the study and made recommendations to the findings of the study based on the findings. Areas for further studies were suggested in the chapter.
LITERATURE REVIEW AND STUDY AREA
2.1 EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION DEFINED
Most theorist have emphasized the relevance of human resource as the single most important factor for achieving and sustaining competitive advantage. Labour is one of the most important factors of production and therefore the role that they play in service production and service delivery is of high importance to the satisfaction of customers of the organisation The role that employees play in service organisations is comparable to the service itself. Most service organisations’ intangible assets are embedded in employees know how and skills and the organisations survival depends on the quality of interactions between customers and employees, hence, employee satisfaction and retention is very crucial.
According to Ziethaml et al (2006), the people factor in service is a very important element in the evaluation of that service. Employees are like the mirror of the organisation as they act as an interface between the organisation and its customers, what they portray is what customers sees and uses in their evaluation of their service experience.
According to Ziethaml et al (2006), ‘satisfied employees make satisfied customers’ and vice versa. Customers are critical to the success of the organisation and so are the employees who are the first line of contact. A high turnover of employees creates additional cost to the organisation. Therefore, measures undertaken to ensure the retention of employees is very critical and this can only be achieved if employees are satisfied with their jobs. Employee satisfaction is considered important because it is a key to business success of any organisation. Weiss (2002, p. 174) cites Locke (1969) defines job satisfaction as feelings of contentment derived from the appraisal of one’s job and the understanding that the job is assisting in achieving one’s goals.
Locke (1976) defines employee satisfaction also known as job satisfaction as a positive emotional state that demonstrates the perceived relationship between the expectations of employees from his job and the perceived offerings of the job.
Spector (1997) also defines Job satisfaction as “the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction) their jobs”. Reilly (1991) defines job satisfaction as the feeling that a worker has about his job or a general attitude towards work or a job and it is influenced by the perception of one’s job. Job satisfaction is a variable issue that usually is dependent on the state of mind of the employee. It is a mental condition of an employee to the work they find themselves in. someone may feel unsatisfactory to a work and in contrary another person may feel satisfactory towards the same job which depends on their attitude regarding the job.
Sharma and Khanna (2014) defined “Job satisfaction as the extent of positive feelings or attitudes that individuals have towards their jobs. When an employee claims that he has high level of job satisfaction, it means that he really likes his job, feels good and values it. Ellickson and Logsdon (2002) support this view by defining job satisfaction as the extent to which employees like their work. Schermerhorn (1993) defines job satisfaction as an affective or emotional response towards various aspects of an employee’s work.
Wanous and Lawler (1972) refers to job satisfaction as the sum of job facet satisfaction across all facets of a job. Wagner and Herter (2006) emphasizes that highly satisfied employees demonstrates a higher level of loyalty to the organisation, provide higher quality of service, reduction in product defects and service issues which leads to an increasing productivity of the employees and the organisation as a whole.
The study of employee job satisfaction is a topic of wide interest to both people who work in organizations and people who study them. Researchers have attempted to identify the various components of job satisfaction, measure the relative importance of each component of job satisfaction and examine what effects these components have on employees’ productivity.
Maslow (1954) suggested that human needs form a five-level hierarchy ranging from physiological needs, safety, belongingness and love, esteem to self-actualization. Based on Maslow’s theory, job satisfaction has been approached by some researchers from the perspective of need fulfilment (Kuhlen, 1963; Worf, 1970; Conrad et al., 1985)
Job satisfaction and dissatisfaction not only depends on the nature of the job, it also depends on the expectation of what the job supplies to an employee (Hussami, 2008). Lower convenience costs, higher organizational, social and intrinsic reward will increase job satisfaction (Mulinge and Mullier, 1998; Willem et al., 2007). Job satisfaction is a complex phenomenon with multi facets (Fisher and Locke, 1992; Xie and Johns, 2000); it is influenced by factors like salary, working environment, autonomy, communication, and organizational commitment (Lane, Esser, Holte and Anne, 2010; Vidal, Valle and Aragón, 2007; Fisher and Locke, 1992; Xie and Johns, 2000).
Wernimont (1966), developed notion of intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job satisfaction.
Extrinsic factors are basically financial and physical which includes; the nature of the working environment, monetary remuneration salary and other financial benefits. Intrinsic factors are psychological needs which can be achieved by meeting the emotional needs of employees. Wernimont (1966), studied the outcome of professionals in their experiences of a situation of either satisfied or dissatisfied job situations, he discovered that more ‘intrinsic’ than ‘extrinsic’ items were stated in describing past satisfying situations: achievement, the nature of the work, and responsibility. Wernimont (1966) concluded that both intrinsic and extrinsic factors influence satisfaction, even though intrinsic factors were stronger.
Despite criticisms of the intrinsic-extrinsic two-factor theory, it caught the attention of researchers who proceeded to test the theory. One of such studies was O’Reilly and Caldwell (1980) who originate that those who made job choices on intrinsic bases were more satisfied and committed than extrinsic factors (e.g. salary, work and family, location).
2.2.1 Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction
Over the last 40 years, many studies have attempted to classify and find out the factors that affect job satisfaction. Abdullah et al (2011) considered some factors such as promotion, employee loyalty and acknowledgment of work which have an effect on employee satisfaction, but he found wages as the main factor for job satisfaction. Additionally, Calisir (2010) maintained that encouragement and salaries are the most important determinant of job satisfaction.
According to Happock (1935), there are six factors that are responsible for job satisfaction:
• The way an individual reacts to an unpleasant situation
• The situation in which an individual adjusts himself with other persons
• The nature of work in relation to employees’ abilities and interests
• When the employee has a relative status in social and economic group with which he identifies himself
Hunjra (2010) found a positive and meaningful relationship between employee satisfaction and management behaviour such as group work, leadership and independence positions. Moreover, Kamal and Hanif (2009), concluded that special strategies and rules which are related to salaries, work environment, policy evolvement and the staff input, may lead to employee commitment, satisfaction. Employee who is more satisfied is more likely to be welcoming and observant. This manner attracts customers in comparison to an employee that is not satisfied with his job.
Smith (2008) considers job satisfaction as a pleasant and positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of career or employee’s experience. Smith (2009) thinks job satisfaction is connected to how the working environment, meets the individual employee’s demands. Robbins (2007) says “job satisfaction” is the differences between the number of rewards that an individual will receive and a reward value that thinks he should get. Abdulla et al., (2011) found the relationship between demographics (such as age, sex, educational level, and also elements which are related to experience, like years of experience and level of the job) and environmental factors (such as pay promotion and management) and job satisfaction. They maintain that environmental factors as compared to demographic factors are better predictors of job satisfaction. Ramman (2011) argues that there is a statistical association between nature of work and job satisfaction. He also found that there is no statistically correlation between demographic factors and working environment.
Abdulla et al., (2011) identified job stress and communications as an important determinant of job satisfaction but found no significant impact on job satisfaction while he found a significant correlation between job satisfaction and factors such as salary and incentives, organizational policy and strategy and nature of the work. However, factors which employees put more emphasis on, are salary and promotion of job level (Butt et al., 2007). According to Akbar et al., (2011) empowered employees who have more power and authority leads towards higher levels of employee satisfaction. Moreover, Calisir et al. (2010) identified a very strong impact of job satisfaction on the performance of organizational obligation and even going beyond to wow their customers while job stress and lack of clarity of role can affect the readiness of employees towards the delivery of quality service.
All in all, there are some factors that causes job dissatisfaction, while some are causing neither dissatisfaction nor contributing much towards job satisfaction. Factors like working environment of the employees, performance appraisal techniques, and relationship with other employees and grievance handling and safety provisions are contributing factors towards job satisfaction (Seema et al., 2013). A lot of factors such as an organizational strategy and policy, personality of employee, nature of work, communication, job stress and recruitment are also associated with employees’ job satisfaction significantly (Saba et al., 2013). Hind (2013) conclude that factors like marital status, city, education level and the duration of work have positive effects on the level of job satisfaction while factors such as gender, age and work itself have no substantial effects on the level of job satisfaction.
2.3 The concept of service quality
There is an intimate connection between product and service quality, customer satisfaction and company profitability. Higher levels of quality results in higher levels of customer satisfaction, while at the same time supporting higher prices and often lower cost. Therefore, quality improvement programs normally increase profitability. Marketing management has two responsibilities in quality centred company. Firstly, marketing management must participate in formulating strategies and policies designed to help the company win through total quality excellence. Secondly, marketing must deliver marketing quality besides production quality. Thus each marketing activity such as marketing research, sales training and advertising must be performed to high standards.
In the same vain, marketers must play several major roles in helping the company define and deliver high quality goods and services to target customers. Firstly, marketers must correctly identify the customer’s needs and requirements. Secondly, marketers must communicate customers’ expectations correctly to product designers. Thirdly, they are to make sure that the customer orders are filled correctly and on time. Fourthly, marketers must check that the customers have received the proper instructions, training and technical assistance in the use of the product. And lastly, marketers must stay in touch with customers after the sale to make sure that they are satisfied. Service quality is the customer’s evaluation of an organisations’ overall level of quality
According to Parasuraman et al. (1991), companies can gain competitive advantage by using technology for the purpose of enhancing service quality and gathering market demand. For decades, many researchers have developed a service perspective (Zeithaml, 2009, Ramsaran and Fowdar, 2007). Chang (2008) describes that the concept of service quality should be generally approached from the customer’s point of view because they may have different values, different ground of assessment, and different circumstances. Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1990) mention that service quality is an extrinsically perceived attribution based on the customer’s experience about the service that the customer perceived through the service encounter. According to the work of Kumra (2008), service quality is not only involved in the final product and service, but also involved in the production and delivery process, thus employee involvement in process redesign and commitment is important to produce quality final products or services. Another research study on service quality is presented by Grönroos (2007) who focuses on a model that is a comparison between customer expectations of the service and their experience of the service they have received before. This model is named “total perceived service quality”. As he emphasizes on what customer is really looking for and what they evaluate, the service quality is based on two dimensions. The first dimension is the technical quality and this dimension refers to the outcome, what is delivered or what the customer gets from the service. The next dimension is the functional quality which refers to the manner in which the service is delivered or how it is delivered. Both dimensions affect the corporate image and the perception of quality in various ways. According to total perceived service quality model, perceived quality of a service is not only affected by the experiences of the quality dimensions that the consumer used for evaluating whether quality is perceived as good, neutral, or bad. It is al also affected by the perceived quality of given service as well as the outcome of the evaluation process.
According to Grönroos (1983) customers use ten criteria in evaluating the quality of service which they receive. These are:
TANGIBLES: Customers look for quality in the equipment, facilities and communication materials used to provide the service.
RELIABILITY: Customers want performance to be consistent and dependable.
RESPONSIVENESS: Customers must see service providers as ready and willing to perform.
COMPETENCE: Service providers should have the skill and knowledge to perform the service properly.
ACCESS: Customers want the service providers to be approachable and easy to contact.
COURTESY: Service providers should be polite, respectful, considerate and friendly.
COMMUNICATION: Customers want the service provider to listen to them, inform and use language they can understand.
CREDIBILITY: Service providers should be trustworthy, believable and honest.
SECURITY: Customers want the service provider to protect them from danger, risk or doubt he or she will respect confidentiality of personal information.
UNDERSTANDING: Service providers should try to understand what their customers want and need.
2.3. IMPLEMENTATION OF SERVICE QUALITY PROGRAMMES
The implementation of customers’ service programs requires some specifics fulfilled. These are:
• Total Involvement of Staff: The entire staff in the organization must be committed to the program. Management needs to adopt an internal marketing approach and sell the benefits of such program to staff to motivate them to give up their best towards the successful implementation of the program.
• Support from Top Management: Top management must be committed and support the customer service program by ensuring its effective implementation.
• Customer Orientation: A relationship of trust must be built between the customers and suppliers for the quality that exist.
• Outline Customer Requirement and Obligation: Customers can be grouped according to the sort of products that satisfy their needs.
• Adherence to set down procedures: Procedures needs to be strictly adhered to and administered through all management techniques monitored.
• Measurement: It is important to measure the service quality since it is the only way of revealing how successful the customer service program has been.
2.4 SERVICE QUALITY MODELS
Lovelock and Wirtz (2007, P. 420) discusses that to measure customer satisfaction with various aspects of service quality, Valarie Zeithaml and her colleagues developed a service research instrument called “SERVQUAL”, this model is based on the premises by which customers can evaluate a firm’s service quality through comparing their perception of its service and with their own expectations. SERVQUAL is seen as a generic measurement tool that can be applied across a broad spectrum of service industries. There are 22 perception items and expectation items that are reflecting the five dimensions of service quality. Respondents complete a series of scales that measure their expectation of companies in a particular industry in a wide area of service characteristics. They also discuss that when perceived performance ratings are lower than expectations, it is a sign of poor quality and reverse indicate good quality.
Parasuraman, (1988) says that in service and retail business, SERVQUAL is a multi-item scale which is developed to assess customer perceptions of service quality but originally it is developed from the GAP model. The author also argues that SERVQUAL must be reliably assessed and measured in order to improve services quality. He mentions that SERVQUAL is an important model to identify the gaps between customer expectations of the service and their perceptions of the actual performance of the service. Alexandris et al., (2002) have described that SERVQUAL is a good model which is helpful for identifying practical issues of service quality in the tourism sector. Zeithaml, Parasuraman and Berry (1980), found five dimensions customers use when evaluating service quality. They named this survey instrument as SERVQUAL. The five dimensions of SERVQUAL are:
• TANGIBLES: appearance of physical facilities, equipment, personnel and communication materials
• RELIABILITY: Ability to perform the promised service accurately and dependably
• RESPONSIVENESS: Willingness to help customers and provide prompt service
• ASSURANCE: Knowledge and courtesy of employee and their ability to convey trust and confidence.
• EMPATHY: Caring, individualized attention the organisation provides to its customers
2.4.1 FIVE GAP MODEL OF SERVICE QUALITY
Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry developed (1985) “The Gap Analysis Model”, which is a well-known model of service quality.
This model defined service quality as meetings customer’s expectations as against the quality of services perceived by customers. Providing services that customers perceive as excellent requires that a firm knows what customers expect.
This model shows an integrated view of the consumer-company relationship. The main idea of the model is focused on the premise that service quality is dependent on the size and direction of the five gaps that can exist in the service delivery process.
The first four gaps are identified as functions of the way in which service is delivered from the service provider to the customer, while gap number five is connected to the customer and as such is considered to be the truth of service quality. Gap five is also the gap that the SERVQUAL instrument influences. Edvardsson (1996) mentioned that it is important for a service organization to define the level of quality at which to operate; he argued that it is more relevant to speak of the “right quality” than of merely high quality.
2.4.2 GAP 1 CUTOMER EXPECTATION VRS MANAGEMENT PERCEPTION
The service executives may fail to understand what customers expect in the service and which features are needed to deliver high quality service or customer care. When management does not correctly perceive exactly what customers want, a gap exist e.g. management does not correctly perceive exactly what customers want, a gap exist e.g. management may develop a policy to ensure that all guest wait no longer than 15 minutes to check in. However, if guest start getting upset after 10 minutes, then this policy will cause dissatisfaction. Talking to the guest before the check in system would have enabled the manager to learn that the critical time is 10 minutes.
2.4.3 GAP 2 MANAGEMENT PERCEPTION VRS SERVICE QUALITY SPECIFICATION
Management might correctly perceive the customers wants but not set a specified performance standard. GAP 2 occurs when management knows what customers want but is unable or unwilling to develop systems that will deliver it.
REASONS FOR GAP2
• Inadequate commitment to customer care and service quality.
• Lack of perception of feasibility.
• Inadequate task standardization.
• Absence of goal setting e.g. A hotel owner who budgets for just enough i.e. when to get and what to get to buy may discover that the linens eventually has dropped below critical levels because the linen has been stolen or destroyed.
2.4.4 GAP 3 SERVICE QUALITY SPECIFICATION VRS SERVICE DELIVERY
This is referred to as the service performance gap. It occurs when management understands what needs to be delivered and the appropriate specifications but employees are unable or unwilling to deliver the service. The employees might be poorly trained, overworked or they may be held to conflicting standards such as taking time to listen to customers and serving them fast.
The GAP 3 error occurs as they expect less from machines e.g. using a computerized check in system in a hotel, a customer does not expect the machine to give her a cheerful greeting and be able to give directions to a coffee shop. Employees however are expected to act cheerfully and solve problems that guest may perceive with the functional quality. This Gap error may be minimized through internal marketing program, management of human resource function i.e. hiring, training, monitoring and working conditions which are all important in reducing errors of his gap.
2.4.5 GAP 4 SERVICE DELIVERY AND EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION
Gap 4 is created when a firm promise more to its external communication than it can deliver e.g. the government of a country invited travellers to enjoy attraction of its island. Its visitors were disappointed when they discovered that many attractions were closed down during the off season period. Therefore, marketers must make sure that operations managers can deliver what they promise.
2.4.6 GAP 5 EXPECTED SERVICES VRS PERCEIVED SERVICES
This gap occurs when the consumer measures the company’s performance in a different way and misperceives the service quality. It represents the difference between expected quality and perceived quality. The expected quality is what the customer expects to receive from the firm and the perceived service quality is what the customer perceives in receiving from the firm. If the customer receives less than is expected from the firm, the customer is dissatisfied.
Source: (Kotler Philip) marketing management, 1999.
2.5 Relationship between employee satisfaction and quality service delivery.
The relationship that exist between employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction derived from the provision of quality service delivery is much stronger in the service industry because the level of contact is high.
(Koys,2003; wagenheim, evanchitzky and wonderlich 2007) found a positive relationship between employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction. The underlying assumption of the relationship between employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction is that an increase in employee satisfaction will lead to an enhanced delivery of service which will lead to satisfaction of customers. Satisfied employees have the willingness required to understand and meet the needs and demands of customers.
Customer satisfaction is the perception made by customers for services that they receive. Definition of customer satisfaction is complex as the definition of what it entails differs from customer to customer.
Service quality can be defined as the difference between customer expectations of the service and the real service experienced by the customer (Parasuraman, Zeithaml, &Berry, 1985). An assessment of service quality performed during the service delivery process usually requires an exchange between the customers and the employees providing the service.
In service industry, employees directly influence the customers’ perception of the organisation. Therefore, the quality of relationship between employees and the customer is a reflection of the type of relationship that exist between the organisation and its employees.
Satisfied employees are more willing and proactive in their contact with customers which plays a major role in the achievement of organisational goals. Bolton and Drew (1991) states that employee job satisfaction can directly affect customers’ perception of service quality. Zeithaml and Bitner (2003), found a reciprocal relationship between employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction. Satisfied employees are more willing to go the extra mile to satisfy customers. Similarly, Vilares and Cohelo (2000) found that perceived employee satisfaction had an impact on the perceived product quality and service quality. Organisations that fail to focus on satisfaction of its employees are likely to be unsuccessful with maintaining high standards of quality service delivery. Loveman (1998), states that organisations that pay more attention to their employees’ satisfaction are more likely in the long run to exceed their financial performance targets.
Employees who are happy with their work are likely to stay with the organisation significantly reducing the rate of staff turnover and cost involved in attracting and training new employees.
Satisfied employees will lead to the provision of a satisfactory service experience which impacts positively on customer retention and repeat business.
2.5.1 The relationship between customer expectations, perceptions and satisfaction
Oliver (1997) mentions that customer satisfaction has a big research tradition of more than three decades. He also gives a definition about customer satisfaction: “a judgement that a product or service feature, or the product or service itself, provides pleasurable consumption related fulfilment. On other definition from Oliver (1997) is that customer satisfaction is as an overall emotional response to an entire service experience for a specific service encounter after purchasing consumption.
In an earlier article Oliver (1980) discusses that satisfaction can be understood as the discrepancy between expectations and perceptions. Differences are to be expected between importance attributes but also segments. Pizam and Ellis (1999) explain that customer satisfaction can be described as a comparison between performance and expectations.
Oliver and Swan (1989) expand the definition and mention that customer satisfaction is an affective term and they identify five different types of satisfaction which are pleasure, relief, novelty and surprise. There are many definitions but according to White and Yu (2005) one consensus that can be found is that the construct includes either cognitive or affective responses and customer satisfaction can be either product or service focused.
Gibson (2005) found in his studies that satisfied customers become repeat purchasers of a product or service and provide positive word of mouth. That means that it is important to understand what factors that influences customer satisfaction in order to create good products or services. Zeithmal and Bitner (2003) expands this discussion and describes that there is an overwhelming interest in service quality and the reason for that is that both practitioners and researchers believe that quality is crucial for the success of any business organization. The construct has great impact on customer satisfaction, repeat purchase behaviour and in the long run also the profitability of the organization. Bitner (1990) also mentions that if the service is affective it has a direct and immediate affect on the customer satisfaction.
Zeithaml and Bitner (2003) argue that customer satisfaction has become a major contributor for enhancing a service company such as long term profitability, customer loyalty, and customer retention. That means for example that it is important to encourage the staff to deliver the right service to the right people in reasonable time and showing good manner. Satisfied customers may also give positive word of mouth and for that reason attract new customers and create long term business profit.
There have been many attempts to define the precise meaning of motivation by researchers, but there seems to be a range of perspectives on the topic. The term “motive” originally came
from the Latin word (movere) that implies to move (Porter, Bigley & Steers 2003; Roa 2010;
Mustafa 2013). According to Latham and Ernst,2006), motivation is a psychological process that results from the reciprocal interaction between an individual and the environment that affects a person’s choices and efforts.
Employees may be regarded as a service organization’s greatest assets therefore; treating them as such will reap rewards. Motivated people get more work done, enjoy working, and feel a sense of accomplishment. They have more initiative to solve problems and overcome obstacles, they are concerned with the quality of work, and are dependable and responsible (Galpin, 1994).High level of motivation among employees can lead to greater efficiency in performance of duties optimum utilization of resources. Employee turnover is reduced with evidence of high level of loyalty and commitment when employees are motivated
“Great managers and great companies start with great people” (Adler, 1998). Since people can be a service organization’s most important asset, the challenge of finding, hiring and retaining the best people can be frustrating and the ramifications of failure can be serious. Like the hiring process itself, motivation of employees doesn’t just happen. It must come from a concerted effort to create and put into action new and innovative ways to inspire the best in every employee at every level (Half, 1993). There is the need to identify the individual needs of employees as what may act as a re-enforcer for one may not apply to another. Some of the forms of motivation that an organisation can successfully implement includes: promotion, pay increase, opportunity to be involved in decision-making and setting of organisational goals.
Motivated employees perform their duties heartily and can even go the extra miles in their quest to exceed customers’ expectations. On the other hand, de- motivated employees perform their duties grudgingly. (Lee Ross, 1999) believed that lack of employees’ motivation will lead to absenteeism, lower quality in service delivery, high rate of employee turnover and high operational cost in the recruitment and selection of new employees.
2.6.1 Theoretical Foundation
Theories of employee satisfaction are largely derived from motivation theories whereby satisfaction is viewed as an outcome rather than a behavior. Emotional, attitudinal, and perceptive nature of satisfaction makes it intrinsic, hence a strong relationship with motivation. Theories explaining satisfaction includes; expectancy theory, Herzberg dual theory, Equity theory, and career stage theory.
2.6.2 Theories of motivation
Categorising the work of theorists in the field of motivation is difficult due to the different bases adopted: psychology, sociology or management. Early motivational theories may be described as needs (content) based so that another need emerged on fulfilment of a lower need in a relatively static environment. “Process theorists view work motivation from a dynamic perspective and look for casual relationships across time and events as they relate to human behaviour in the workplace” (Steers, Mowday & Shapiro 2004, p.381). “Dualistic theories divide motivation into two types: intrinsic and extrinsic” (Reiss 2012, p.152). Reiss (2012) claimed that when tested for measurement reliability and construct validity, dualistic theories tend to fail, and advocated for validated multifaceted theories. Motivation theories in this section are presented from a dualistic perspective.
188.8.131.52 Content theories
Research into employee motivation continued from the mid-20th century until the present day, initially based on influential figures that posited models arguably emanating from the Hawthorne studies. The following researchers are briefly presented: Abraham Maslow, Douglas McGregor, and Frederick Herzberg.
184.108.40.206 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
As a psychologist, Abraham Maslow entered into the management behaviour and organisational development fields, concentrating on the motivational aspects of employee behaviour raised in the Hawthorne studies by Mayo (1933) and Roethlisberger and Dickson (1939). Henry Murray (1938), a psychologist, he conceptualised the need for achievement as a broad, unitary construct and identified 20 needs that humans attempt to satisfy:
Abasement, achievement, affiliation, aggression, autonomy, counteraction, deference, dependence, dominance, exhibition, harm avoidance, in avoidance/ inviolacy, nurturance, order, play, rejection, seclusion, sentience, sex, succorance, superiority, and understanding. (Carson, 2005, p. 455). Maslow (1943) distilled “Murray’s list and produced five basic sets of needs: psychological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualisation” (Carson 2005, p.455). Maslow determined that “although the ultimate goal is self-actualisation” (Carson 2005, p.455), each of the lower level needs must be first met, as shown below in Figure 3.1.
Figure 2.1 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
In a subsequent meta-study of empirical findings based on the hierarchical model, Wahba and Bridwell (1976) found only partial support for Maslow’s theory. Many cross-sectional studies showed evidence only for self-actualisation, not the structure, whilst longitudinal studies testing Maslow’s structure of attainment showed no support, and the authors queried the measurements of the cross-sectional studies. There were many researchers who in the subsequent years attempted revisions of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Alderfer (1969, 1972) developed (and tested) an alternative to Maslow’s theory, basing it on a construct of existence (physiological, safety), relatedness (social), and growth (ERG). Alderfer avoided lower-level satisfaction as necessary for progression through the needs hierarchy; however, the theory related the impact of higher-order frustration of needs to the effort engaged to satisfy lower order needs. An empirical study of bank employees supported Alderfer’s theory more so than differential predictions in Maslow’s theory. Despite an apparent lack of theoretical support for Maslow’s hierarchical approach, Chien, Yen and Hoang (2012) found that Maslow’s theory is frequently used by leisure/recreation researchers, providing a framework for determining when and under what conditions leisure decisions are made. Adiele and Abraham (2013) further used a survey on the model to argue
220.127.116.11 McGregor’s theory X and theory Y
The term organisational development was coined by Douglas McGregor and Richard Beckhard to describe an innovative bottom-up change process. However, McGregor (1957) saw an individual’s needs as a hierarchy which is continually replenished as one need is satisfied, although “a satisfied need is not a motivator of behaviour” (McGregor, 1957, p.42). The first, physiological needs refer to basic needs of life such as air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex and sleep. The next, security, is protection against danger, threat or deprivation, although in an organisational sense, McGregor saw security as the ‘fairest possible break’. The next is social needs, needs for belonging, social acceptance and giving and receiving friendship and love. In this instance, management attempts to divide a social work group may be counter-productive if the individuals become resentful and uncooperative, although this is a consequence of the decision, not the cause. Following social needs are ego needs relating to self-esteem, self-confidence, independence,
achievement and knowledge; and to reputation in the form of status, recognition and appreciation. Once these needs are satisfied, McGregor pointed to a capstone of needs, self-fulfilment, where the individual seeks continued self-development, and achievement through creativity. McGregor (1960) used the hierarchy of needs as the basis of his theory X and theory Y.Unlike recent work on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, McGregor’s theories of management behaviour had research attention, generally supporting theory Y. Sahin (2012) investigated the relationship between McGregor’s Theory X and Y management styles and affective commitment in Turkey, finding support for theory Y management style, but none for the paternalistic theory X style. In a contemporary assessment of McGregor’s work, Kopelman, Prottas and Falk (2010) questioned the absence of a measurement of management style. They discussed the lack of empirical research on the theory, and developed a measure of 13 behaviour items on management style which may be useful as a diagnostic tool for individual and organisational development. Herzberg’s two-factor theory Fredrick Herzberg was a contemporary of Maslow and McGregor, again a psychologist, who proposed a hygiene-motivation theory of factors affecting employee performance (Herzberg, Mausner & Snyderman 1959). Similar to Maslow’s physiological, safety and social needs; and McGregor’s physiological and social needs, Herzberg described the work environment such as the physical surroundings, supervisors and the organisation, as the hygiene component of his theory. Eliminating issues arising from the working environment may make an employee productive, but not necessarily motivated. Herzberg believed that motivation occurs through the work itself.
Under the hygiene part of the theory, Herzberg, Mausner and Snyderman (1959) posited the following elements that do not motivate; however issues regarding these lead to dissatisfaction:
Figure 2.2 McGREGGOR’S THEORY X ; Y
The second component in Herzberg’s theory, motivation, involves the intrinsic nature of the job: engagement, achievement, recognition, and growth.
Critics emerged for Herzberg’s hygiene-motivator theory, stating that work factors (satisfiers) produce positive but not negative job attitudes, while other variables (dissatisfiers) produce a negative, but not positive, job attitude. Ewen (1964) encapsulated the range of issues on the theory as comprising a constrained sample, a single measure for job attitudes, no validation or reliability test and no measure of overall job satisfaction. Nevertheless, the theory persisted and Smerek and Peterson (2007) in studying job satisfaction among non-academic employees at a university found mixed results although some support for the intrinsic nature of the work.
Studying police retention, Monk-Turner, O’Leary and Sumter (2010) found support for the two-part theory. In studying the hospitality industry, Lundberg, Gudmundson and Andersson (2009) encapsulated research views on Herzberg’s 2-factor theory. The researchers’ findings support the theory, indicating that the short-term contractors at a seasonal tourism destination were “significantly less concerned about wage level as well as significantly more concerned about meeting new people than resident workers” (Lundberg, Gudmundson, & Andersson 2009, p. 890). They posited that based on demographics, worker subgroups had different needs to be satisfied.
Summary of content theories Whilst of historical interest, the motivation theories have mixed reviews in contemporary research and appear to be used in a historical sense, such as Kenrick et al. (2010) changing Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to meet the conditions established by researchers in the intervening half-century.
Developed from Herzberg, Mausner ; Snyderman (1959), Maslow (1943), Alderfer (1969) According to Steers, Bigley and Porter (1996), a comprehensive theory of employee motivation should comprise contextual elements, the characteristics of the individual, the job and the work environment. However, at the time, authors such as Bong (1996) criticised the quality of the debate, stating that varying theoretical orientations of researchers resulted in arbitrary selection of variables which rendered model comparison (or generalisation) invalid.
Another branch of motivation theory refers to cognitive and social-cognitive models, such as Locke and Latham’s (2002) goal-setting theory. Focussed on motivation in work settings, social–cognitive theory measures and describes goal-setting at the individual, group, and organisational level. Through establishing the job perimeters, goal setting matches the goal to performance measures, incorporates feedback, provides task training and includes the employee’s personal (career) goals.
Early motivation models include expectancy model (Vroom 1964) and Hackman and Oldham’s (1976/1980) job characteristics model. Elding, Tobias and Walker (2006) combined both models towards a unified model of motivation. They explained that by renaming variables, the two theories had greater commonality; however, the unified theory was not pursued.
2.6.3 Expectancy Theory
Victor Vroom (1964) expectancy theory identifies three factors or expectancies that play an interactive role in employee satisfaction; effort and performance, instrumentality and valence. Effort–performance expectancy (E-P) is perception by the employee that effort is positively correlated to performance. Performance–outcome expectancy (P-O) or instrumentality concerns that following the performances appropriate rewards intrinsic and extrinsic shall follow. Valence (V) is the degree to which a person values a particular reward. Employee satisfaction would occur if he interprets a positive relationship between the effort put and level of performance.
Figure 2.3 VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY
2.7 Issues prevalent at the workplace
People spend nearly half of their adult lives at work, which causes workplace issues to become a source of stress for many. Conflicts in the work place is inevitable due to the different expectations, roles played and diverse personalities. The workplace is an environment with different personalities who interact which is a source of workplace issues that can lead to stress. Employees face issues of harassment, discrimination and bullying at the workplace. Issues of meeting performance targets and dissatisfaction with job are also faced by workers on a daily basis. Workplace issues can lead to stress, reduction in productivity and termination of employment.
Kerke (2010) states that creating a great and safer working environment is very important. Organisations must ensure the avoidance of accidents and discourage any form of unhealthy practices. Many employers have the wrong perception that they can enhance productivity by giving employees good salary packages. what employers refuse to understand is that there are other several factors that impacts on the motivations level of employees’ performance such as the working environment prevailing in the organisation.
Work environment is a mixture of many factors coming together to form the environment of an organisation. These factors are: setting of goals, incentives, well defined processes, feedback on performance and supervisor support. Together, all these factors have an impact on an employees’ performance at the workplace. All these must be in place to enable an employee work effectively and efficiently.
Since employees are expected to achieve set goals, they must be actively involved in the setting of goals which can have a positive impact on the enthusiasm involved in achieving them. Also, providing employees with regular feedback on their performance goes a long way to empower them in the achievement of individual and corporate objectives. Both positive and negative feedback on performance needs to communicated so corrective actions or rewards in place are put into use. The organisation must recognize incentives that motivates their individual employees and make it available to. Finally, a good interpersonal relationship between employees and supervisors goes a long way to make the work climate conducive and enhance job performance. All these factors are to be made available to create a good working environment to employees.
According to Heath (2006), the level of employees’ commitment and innovativeness on the job is determined by their immediate working environment. They want healthy workplace environment where they can work in harmony with their team members and their supervisors (Heath, 2006). Also, employees are more effective and efficient with their work when the process of performing their task
are well defined and requirement of the job must be properly communicated to the employees. (Taiwo,2010). According to Tompkins, (2017), some of the common problems at the workplace includes inadequate job descriptions, lack of training on the job, lack of two-way communication between managers and employees, ineffective employee recognition, lack of equipment to facilitate the speed of work performance as well as ineffective recognition of employees’ effort towards the attainment of company goals. Organisations must put measures in place by ensuring that there is effective communication with employees on issues regarding their job, proper training of employees on the job to enhance their knowledge on the job. Process of performing task should be well defined, properly detailed and communicated to employees as well proper recognition system put in place to recognise employees for outstanding performance and motivating them to attain the next level in their career.
The chapter outlines the research methodology for the study. The research paradigm and philosophy were discussed to ascertain the most appropriate research method for the study. The research design, methods of sampling, types of data collection methods, sources of data, qualitative and quantitative methods of research, data collection, population, sampling frame, sample size, methods of data analysis and research ethics were discussed in the chapter.
3.1: RESEARCH METHODS
With respect to the study problem stated earlier and chosen objectives, primary data was used extensively for the work due to the need for current and reliable information for the study. However, minimum amount of secondary data was used to supplement the facts gathered in order to make it more authentic.
3.2: RESEARCH DESIGN AND PHILOSOPHY
According to Saunders et al (2012), research philosophies and paradigms are very vital in making informed decisions about the type of research design to be employed. According to Swetnam and Swetnam (2009), the research design will generally help in achieving the outlined research objectives for the study. The two main research philosophies to be discussed are the positivist and phenomenological types.
According to Francis (2004), the positivist paradigm aims to consider the world as external and objective with the researcher of the study being considered as independent. This will hence allow the researcher to focus on the facts of the study and consider the fundamental laws used by service quality (SERVQUAL). There will be the availability of operational measures that allows the measurement of the carious variables in the research study. A series of research hypothesis must be developed and tested through the use of collected data. A set of large sample size must also be considered for the study through the use of the positivist type of research paradigm and philosophy (Saunders et al, 2012).
The Case study research design was adopted for this study to enable efficient data collection and to ensure accurate and true data. A modest questionnaire was designed to get significant information from individual respondents. A qualitative and quantitative research was used in other to gather an in-depth understanding of the individual investor’s investment decision.
The simple random sampling method was used to select the respondents of United Bank for Africa Ghana who are employees and customers of the company. Saunders et al (2012) identified that the simple random sampling method allows an unbiased method for the collection of data. This helps to improve the credibility, reliability and authenticity of the results of the data analysis. Subsequently, it provides an equal opportunity for selecting respondents for the research study.
The phenomenological type of paradigm considers the use of a small sample size. Francis (2004) explained that an in depth analysis is required for the findings. A series of multiple methods will be used to provide a contextual detail to the research study (Swetnam and Swetnam, 2009). This helps identify various angles and ideas to the research study as well as including the original concepts identified by the researcher (Saunders et al, 2012). The phenomenological type of research paradigm and philosophy identifies and considers the researcher as part of the sample size and aims to understand what exactly is happening. Inductions from data will allow the development of ideas for the study.
An in depth evaluation of the two types of philosophies identified by the research study clearly shows that a combination of both positivist and phenomenological types can contribute to achieving the outlined research objectives. A large sample size was selected which was in line with the positivist type of research paradigm and a multiple method of research that ranges from the collection of data with the use of questionnaires and interviews, qualitative and quantitative methods of research will be used by the researcher for the study. The use of both positivist and phenomenological types of research paradigm and philosophy will ensure a high level of reliability and validity for the findings of the study.
3.3: RESEARCH POPULATION, SAMPLING FRAME AND SAMPLE SIZE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
Research population considers a broader group of people that the researcher aims at working on. Based on factors such as the large size of the population; the unavailability of all members of the population during the collection of data; and the unavailability of sufficient resources for the study, Saunders et al (2012) suggested that it is not advisable to use a research population which is very large for a study. The target population considered for this study is all the employees and customers of the 28 branches of United Bank for Africa Ghana.
The sampling frame is developed by the researcher to provide a detailed list of all members of the research population. This is a list of individuals who are identifiable with the research population; their addresses are available and are of interest to the research study (Francis, 2004). The sampling frame for the research study considered all employees and customers of the United Bank for Africa within 2 branches of the bank in the Greater Accra region. The two branches in Accra were considered due to the easy access to data.
SAMPLE SIZE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
Saunders et al (2012) explained sample size as the number of individuals selected from the sampling frame for the study. The sample size used for the data analysis was 80.
Francis (2004) explained that sample sizes are used for research studies compared to research populations due to the underlying problems associated with the use of research populations. The simple random sampling technique was used to select the 80 respondents (50 employees consisting of 45 employees and 5 management staff and 30 customers) who completed questionnaires within a 2 – week period.
3.4: SOURCES OF DATA: PRIMARY AND SECONDARY
A combination of both primary and secondary sources of data was used for the research study. The primary source of data is the type of data collected from the research respondents directly. A combination of semi structured questionnaire and interview was used to collect the primary data from the employees and customers of United Bank for Africa and the management members respectively (Francis, 2004). The semi structured questionnaire was developed using a combination of open ended and close ended questions. The Likert scale technique was used to provide responses for the semi structured questions. Saunders et al (2012) explained that the Likert scale technique allows the researcher to have control over the responses provided by the research respondents. The Likert scale technique enables the easy use of statistical methods of data for qualitative types of data. The Likert scale technique used for the study was coded as follows: 1 for Strongly agree; 2 for Agree; 3 for Neither agree nor disagree; 4 for Disagree; and 5 for Strongly disagree. The semi structured questions were simple to read and easy to understand. Hence, the respondents were not assisted in completing the questionnaires.
According to Francis (2004), secondary data is data collected from other sources apart from the research respondents. The secondary sources of data used for the study included data from websites and web blogs, journals, published articles and thesis on SERVQUAL in order to improve the validity, authenticity and reliability of the findings, the sources of the secondary data were checked for consistency and accuracy.
3.5 DATA TECHNIQUES
QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
The quantitative research method was used to collect numerical data such as number of years of work. The questionnaire was used collect the primary data for the study. A series of closed questions were asked and the Likert scale was used to rank and rate the various responses from respondents.
The qualitative research method allowed the researcher understands the reasons behind the choices of respondents. Providing a new view to the study, the qualitative research method allowed the study to identify the background information to the study (Saunders et al, 2012).
3.6 DATA ANALYSIS
After the editing of questionnaires to remove errors and check for consistency, the qualitative aspect of questionnaire was coded for easy entry of data and further analysis. Statistical package for social science (SPSS) and Microsoft Excel were the tools used in the analysis of data.
PROFILE OF UNITED BANK FOR AFRICA PLC
Today’s United Bank for Africa Plc (UBA) is the product of the merger of Nigeria’s third (3rd) and fifth (5th) largest banks, namely the old UBA and the erstwhile Standard Trust Bank Plc (STB) respectively, and a subsequent acquisition of the erstwhile Continental Trust Bank Limited (CTB). The union emerged as the first successful corporate combination in the history of Nigerian banking.
UBA’s history dates back to 1948 when the British and French Bank Limited (“BFB”) commenced business in Nigeria and the erstwhile STB and CTB both in 1990. Following Nigeria’s independence from Britain, UBA was incorporated in 1961 to take over the business of BFB. Although today’s UBA emerged at a time of industry consolidation induced by regulation, the consolidated UBA was borne out of a desire to lead the domestic sector to a new era of global relevance by championing the creation of the Nigerian consumer finance market, leading a private/public sector partnership at supporting the acceleration of Nigeria’s economic development, and growing the institution from a banking to a one-stop financial services institution, while spreading its footprints across Africa to earn the reputation as the face of banking in the continent.
Today, United Bank for Africa Plc is one of Africa’s leading financial institutions offering universal banking to more than 7 million customers across 750 branches in 19 African countries. With presence in New York, London and Paris and assets in excess of $19bn, UBA is your partner for banking services for Africans and African related businesses globally.
An inspired vision:
“To be the undisputed leading and dominant financial services institution in Africa ”
Our vision was crafted after a series of strategic retreats by the senior and executive management and encapsulates our desire to occupy the foremost position in our field in all of Africa.
Key elements of the Vision are as follows:
Undisputed— UBA desires to be the reference point for service, quality and innovation in the financial services industry and achieve significant difference between UBA ; number two on all key parameters.
Leading— UBA desires to occupy the foremost position (#1 or #2) amongst its peers in the industry along key metrics: market share, profitability, balance sheet size, reach etc.
Dominant— UBA desires to achieve a clear ; significant lead over peers along all key measures and significantly influence financial services industry policy ; direction.
Financial Services Institution — UBA desires to provide a broad range of financial services products and services offerings to meet the needs of its chosen market segments.
In Africa — UBA’s primary focus shall be on the African region where it intends to deploy its array of financial services products and service offerings. We shall also maintain a selective presence in key locations worldwide on an opportunistic basis.
“We shall be a role model for African businesses by creating superior value for all our stakeholders, abiding by the utmost professional and ethical standards, and building an enduring institution”. Our business decisions shall be driven by the desire to achieve significant value-added for all stakeholders. Integrity and professionalism shall govern the character of our interactions with all our stakeholders. We shall put in place governance and strategic management practices that ensures that this organization will successfully anticipate and respond to environmental discontinuities and effectively manage leadership transitions at all levels. We shall be known as an African company that does business in an exemplary manner with best people and world class processes, and strive by our actions to inspire all those we come in contact with.
ENTERPRISE – Own the task
– Go the extra mile, solve problems
– Break barriers
– Be innovative
EXCELLENCE – Be responsive and passionate
– Surpass customers’ expectations always
– Be meticulous-keep it simple always
– Be professional- integrity, friendly and genuine
EXECUTION – Get it done
– Get it done now
– Get it done very well
Our strategic objective over the next three years will be directing and positioning
UBA Ghana as a viable financially strong long term player in the banking industry
NUMBER OF COUNTRIES UBA OPERATES IN
Ghana, Nigeria, Congo Brazzaville, Burkina Faso, Cote d’ivoire, Liberia, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Gabon, Cameroon, Uganda, Zambia, Kenya, Tanzania, Benin, Mali, Senegal, Paris, New York, London
UBA currently has 28 branches in Accra and has its presence in 5 regions.
ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE OF UNITED BANK FOR AFRICA (GHANA
SOURCE: UNITED BANK FOR AFRICA GHANA, INTRANET.
DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS
This chapter covers data analysis and presentation. Data collected were analysed, grouped and presented in a manner that expanciates and enlighten meaning and understanding.
4.1. Demographic Analysis of Respondents
4.2.1 Figure 1. Age Rank of Respondents
Table 1. Age of Respondents
Age Rank No. Respondents Percentage (%)
18 – 25 25 31.3
26 – 40 32 40
41 and Above 23 28.7
Total 80 100
As depicted by table 1 above, 31.3% of the respondent were between the ages of 18 and 25,
40 % were between 26-40 years whiles 41 and above were 28.70% out of the total respondents. The respondents were dominated by 26-40 age rank, followed closely by 18-25 age rank.
This shows that the youth constitutes a majority of UBA customers rather than the elderly population. In order not to lose its youthful and most profitable customers, UBA should try to improve upon its services by being innovative so as to keep the interest of the youth in the organisation.
Figure 1. Age Rank of Respondents
4.2.2 Gender of respondents
Gender No. Respondents Percentage (%)
Male 37 46.25
Female 43 53.75
Total 80 100
Out of the total 90 valid responses received, 43 representing 53.75% were female whiles 37 representing 46.25% were male as shown in figure 2.
4.2.3 Religion of Respondents
Religion No. Respondents Percentage (%)
Christianity 73 91.25
Islamic 7 8.75
Others 0 0
Total 80 100
As shown in figure 3, out of the total 80 valid responses received, 73 representing 91.25 % belonged to the Christian religion whiles 7 representing 8.75% were Muslims.
4.3 Objective One: To determine the factors that influences employee satisfaction in United Bank for Africa.
4.3.1 How is the working environment?
Type of working environment No. Respondents Percentage (%)
participative 15 33.33
Autonomy 10 22.22
Autocratic 20 44.45
Total 45 100
As shown in figure 3, out of the total 45 valid responses received, 15 believed that UBA provided a working environment that included employees in their decision-making process. 10 respondents also felt they had all the freedom required to act on behalf of the bank without any fear. But, majority of the staff consisting of 44.45% felt that decisions concerning the bank and their wellbeing are made at the top and imposed on employees for acceptance which affects their acceptance and effective implementation hampering on satisfaction.
4.3.2 which of the following factors motivates you most?
Type of motivation No. Respondents Percentage (%)
Salary increase 18 40
promotion 16 35.55
Recognition 11 24.45
Others 0 0
Total 45 100
40% of the total respondents stated categorically that an increase in salary at least year on year goes a long way to increase their level of satisfaction and urges them to stay and serve customers efficiently. 35.55% of respondents also concluded that continuous promotion to higher grades within the bank enhances employee satisfaction. Only 24.45% of employees were motivated when their hard work is given recognition and praises are hurled on them. It motivates them to work harder. This shows that if UBA wants to continue satisfying its internal employees, there must ensure that salaries are increased and promotion given out to deserving staffs as frequently possible. For clearer understanding of the findings, pictorial illustration is given in figure 4 below.
4.3.3 Does UBA provide satisfactory salary that commensurate with your work?
Does UBA provide satisfactory salary that commensurate your work No. Respondents Percentage (%)
YES 32 71.11
NO 13 28.89
Total 45 100
Most employees of UBA as much as 71.11% as shown above stated that they were satisfied with their salaries. They felt that the level of work commensurate with the salaries that they receive on a monthly basis. Whiles 28.89% of the respondent felt that the level of work being performed did not match up to the salaries being paid. Most of these staff are at the lower grade of the bank comprising mostly of tellers. This is a very important issue that UBA must take appropriate actions to address as the importance of tellers who happen to be the first point of contact for customers and also the executioner of most of the banks’ transaction cannot be taken lightly. They interact most often with customers and the need to have an excellent attitude towards them is key to the retention of customers. Management must therefore take steps to address the wide disparity in salaries to satisfy those at the lower grades. The responses are further illustrated graphically in figure 5 above.
4.3.4 How does the motivation you receive impact on your performance?
Respondents (employees) gave various clues to the impact that motivation had on their performance on the job.
According respondent 1: ‘Being motivated makes me give out my best at all times on the job’. ‘Another respondent also stated that ‘motivation provides an incentive to keep giving off my best’
Other responses generated were that motivation increases drive to work hard. Also, it is a factor that creates room to put in more effort to deliver excellent service
Other respondents felt by receiving recognition for their hard work, it creates an inward satisfaction in them which boosts their morale to go the extra mile in the performance of their work.
All the above responses confirm that truly a positive impact on the wellbeing of employees through the various forms of motivation tools has an equally positive impact on their attitude towards work and efficient delivery of quality service to customers which has an effect on the profitability of the bank.
4.4.1 Objective Two: To determine the level of customer satisfaction (as a proxy for quality) in United Bank for Africa.
4.4.2 Are you satisfied with the services of UBA?
Are you satisfied with the services of UBA No. Respondents Percentage (%)
YES 27 90
NO 3 10
Total 30 100
Out of the total valid response collated from customers of UBA, 90% outlined that they were very satisfied with the level of service delivery and products that were offered by the bank. They were very impressed about how customer centric the bank was and stated that they would love to do repeat business with the bank. However, 10% of the respondent felt the bank was not up to the task when it comes to efficient service delivery and expects that more should be done to improve the level of quality service delivery.
4.4.3 kindly explain your experience with UBA in terms of service delivery?
Some of the comments made by customers on their personal experiences and encounters with the service delivery of UBA was overwhelming. One respondent commented that ‘the staff are very responsive and pleasant’. Another customer wrote that ‘all the staff are very friendly and caring right from the top to the security men. I always enjoy banking with them’.
Another customer also stated ‘I have a thousand and one memorable experience with UBA from the security men to the tellers and everybody. They are all nice people’. Several other comments also go out to recommend the timely response to complaints and attention to transactions by commenting that ‘ATM is usually operational and less queues in the banking halls and also transactions are captured on time’. ‘tellers’ turnaround time was on point’,
Another customer recommends that staff have the patience to explain things out to customers when they have no knowledge of it and also highly efficient online platform that facilitate easy transaction out of the banking halls.
All these and more are the numerous comments made by customers on their encounters with the bank. As much as most customers are satisfied with the services they are provided, they believe there is still room for improvement in all spheres of the banks’ operations.
4.4.4. How do you rate your level of satisfaction with UBA’s services?
Are you satisfied with the services of UBA No. Respondents Percentage (%)
Highly satisfied 3 10
Satisfied 19 63.33
Indifference 5 16.67
Not satisfied 2 6.67
Highly dissatisfied 1 3.33
Total 30 100
Out of the total valid response received from respondents, only 10% of them were highly satisfied with the services of UBA. 19% of the respondents which is the highest were simply satisfied with the level of service of the bank. 5% were indifferent with the services of UBA as they felt it rates the same as what they have been experiencing in other banks. 2% and 1% were not satisfied and highly dissatisfied respectively.
UBA must make it a point to recover all the customers they have lost due to service dissatisfaction and also enhance the satisfaction level of their customers by wowing them to move from just being satisfied to highly satisfaction. Raising service standards can also convert customers who are indifferent to very loyal customers.
The impact of this is clearly expressed in the figure below.
4.4.5. Do you often make complaints?
Complaints No. Respondents Percentage (%)
YES 7 23.33
NO 23 76.67
Total 30 100
As much as 76.67% of respondents responded no to making complaints about the services being provided at the united Bank for Africa. In other words, they are mostly satisfied with service provided at the bank. 23.33% of respondents stated that, they sometimes have complaints to make usually ranging from issues relating to internet banking, e-banking platforms such as ATM, receiving of alerts on phone for transactions to several other enquiries. Meanwhile, a majority of customers not making complaints to the bank does not mean that all is well with their services as most customers who do not complain silently look for other alternatives. It is therefore important to impress on customers to make complaints known as much as possible and a prompt solution to them must be ensured to deliver excellent service to them.
4.5 Objective Three: To assess the impact of employee satisfaction on the delivery of quality service at the United Bank for Africa
4.5.1 How many years have you been working with UBA?
Number of years No. Respondents Percentage (%)
0 – 2 years 8 16
2 – 4 years 18 36
More than 4 years 24 48
Total 50 100
Per table 10 above, 16% of the respondent had stayed in the service of the bank from up to 2 years. 36% have been in service for 2 – 4 years and 48% have stayed working in the bank from 4 years and above. From the data above, it can be noticed that most of the employees have stayed loyal working for the bank for over 4 years mostly as a result of their contentment with the terms of service. Employees are highly motivated to stay and work and therefore have established a trustworthy relationship with the customers. Customers like to transact with employees that they have known over the years. They establish a relationship with them characterize by commitment and loyalty and are unwilling to move to other banks as long standing employees have a upper hand in serving customers better with all the knowledge they have gathered leading to delivery of excellent service.
UBA must however ensure to device strategies that will curb the resignation of staff after 2 years of service by motivating them with incentives to retain them. The cost of hiring and training new employees is three times higher than the cost of retaining current employees.
4.5.2. UBA customer service representatives are well trained?
UBA staff are well trained No. Respondents Percentage (%)
Strongly disagree 2 6.67
Somewhat disagree 2 6.67
Neither agree nor disagree 2 6.66
Somewhat agree 3 10
Strongly agree 21 70
Total 30 100
From the valid responses that was gathered, 70% of the respondents agreed that the employees of UBA are well trained on the job and very professional in the delivery of quality service to customer leading to customer satisfaction. 10% somewhat agreed with the assertion that the employees of UBA are well equipped to efficiently handle customers. 6.7% and 6.66% somewhat disagreed and indifferent with the professionalism of employees. This shows that UBA must still make efforts by organising training programmes that will equip and enhance the knowledge base of employees on the efficient handling of customers and going the extra mile to have a positive encounter with them. The data above is properly demonstrated in figure 9 below
4.5.3. Do you have the necessary authority to perform your duties effectively?
Do you have authority No. Respondents Percentage (%)
Yes 38 84.44
No 7 15.56
total 45 100
From the table 12 above, 84.44% of employees are convinced that UBA has empowered them to perform their duties efficiently by giving them the authority they need to act on behalf of the bank. This provides them with the flexibility that is required in the prompt resolution of complaints and queries. It gives employees the opportunity to think through issues and be innovative in providing solutions that will enhance customer satisfaction.
However, 15.56% of respondents believed that though they hold influential positions in the bank and as a representative of the bank, they lack the power and authority to perform activities that will be in the best interest of customers. This can hamper customer service in the bank and cause customer dissatisfaction. UBA must therefore ensure that employees are given the needed authority required to effectively deliver quality service to its customers to improve customer service.
4.6.0. To identify and examine organizational and management strategies that contribute to employee satisfaction at United Bank for Africa.
4.6.1. Are there strategies by management to improve the quality of service delivery in UBA?
Strategies to improve quality service delivery in UBA No. Respondents Percentage (%)
Yes 22 44
No 28 56
Total 50 100
Per data presented on the table above, it is evident that 44% of the valid responses received are confident that the management of UBA have strategies put in place to improve service delivery . 56% believe that, there are adequate strategies put in place by management to enhance quality service delivery. Some of the strategies that respondents commented on included the creation of a service quality department in the bank whose focus is to ensure that all staff are put on its toes when it comes to efficient service delivery. They help ensure that the turnaround time for transactions (TAT) are strictly adhered to and also employees have a positive and approachable attitude towards work, as well as prompt resolution of customer queries and complaints. Training programmes are organized periodically to enhance employees’ knowledge of enhancing their skills in service delivery. The most recent management strategy deployed by management to ensure effective queue management in the banking halls in order to improve service delivery is the KAIZEN CONCEPT. It is a concept adopted by the bank to enhance efficiency by eliminating wastage which helps reduce cost, improve process and ensure high quality in service delivery. By reducing queues, educating employees to be friendly and providing prompt service to customers, high customer satisfaction is expected.
4.6.2. Do you have training programmes available to employees to adequately serve your customers to their satisfaction?
Training programmes No. Respondents Percentage (%)
Yes 39 78
No 11 22
Total 50 100
Out of the valid responses recorded, 78% of respondents concluded that indeed UBA does have training programmes that are available to enhance employees with knowledge to adequately serve customers. 22% stated that, there were not enough training available to equip employees on efficient service delivery.
UBA apart from organising periodic training on customer service and product knowledge and daily journals on customer service sent via mail, they do dedicate every Thursday as training day for all branches of the bank and other subsidiaries to explore theoretical and practical ways of effectively serving their customers. Also, there is a e-learning platform created by management known as IGNITE where various courses and books are uploaded for learning by employees at their own convenience, even at the comfort of their home. After every course programme is taken, an online examination is administered to test the knowledge and understanding of employees and a certificate awarded accordingly if passed.
4.6.3 Are employees adequately rewarded for their commitment and dedication towards work
Reward to employees No. Respondents Percentage (%)
Yes 27 54
No 23 46
Total 50 100
27 respondents representing 54% of the valid responses accumulated attested to the fact that UBA adequately rewarded employees which enhance their commitment and dedication towards the performance of duties. 46% of respondents felt that they were not adequately rewarded for the service rendered and therefore were very bitter which could actually affect their attitude towards the delivery of service negatively.
UBA has in place promotion policy were deserving employees are promoted yearly to acknowledge their efforts. Also, there is a policy that ensures an increase in salaries of employees by 10% every year to motivate employees to deliver effectively. UBA Ghana pays employees bonus if the bank is able to meet and exceed targets that are set for the subsidiary to appreciate employees for the cooperative efforts of the individual towards achieving the mark. Other incentives include a free health insurance policy put in place by management that takes care of staff and three other immediate families which goes a long way to reduce the financial burden on employees when they are taken ill as the health of employees is of primacy to management. Employees have access to ‘soft loans’ spread over a longer time period with small interest rate which are made available upon request to help employees to cater for pressing needs. With all these in place, it can be seen that majority of employees are still left unsatisfied. This is largely due to the level of disparity in income between the various grades of employees at the bank. The difference in income between the employees at the top and the those at the lower grades is far apart. This must be addressed if UBA wants to ensure that all employees are on the same page so far as employee satisfaction is concerned and the positive impact on service delivery that is bound to be achieved.