Home Free Lab ReportsCHAPTER 5 SUMMARY

CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY

CHAPTER 5
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMENDATIONS
5.0 Introduction
The study sought to investigate the the impact of command agriculture on the performance of agro-processing supply chains in Bulawayo.In this chapter, the researcher presents the conclusions and recommendations of the study based on the information and data collected from agro- processing companies, suppliers and relevant governmental support departments of command agriculture.

5.1 Summary
The methodology that was used included sending out questionnaires. The data that was gathered was analysed to generate information that was used to answer the research questions and fulfil the objectives of this thesis. The study was done to discover whether command agriculture has an impact on the performance of agro- food processors supply chains in Bulawayo.

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5.2 Conclusions
5.3 Recommendations
In the light of the findings and conclusions, the following policy recommendations follow from the study-(the impact of command agriculture on the performance of agro-processing supply chains in Bulawayo.)
Selection criteria should be based on capability and not political affiliation that is inputs, implements and land should be given on merit without considering political party one supports. That is transparency should also be considered when issuing inputs and on land distribution to farmers.
Inputs need to be supplied on time to a farmer that is before the farming season begins that is at least three months before the start of the season as this will promote adequate preparation. Incorporating command agriculture into other sectors can also help. The government should have a policy on command agriculture and remove opaqueness around it. For example on the newly launched command livestock at the trade fair recently we could see people being given three beasts per person to improve livestock in rural areas but the breed given to rural farmers does not do well in those areas. This should be considered when implementing command agriculture. Inputs which suites certain region should be distributed.
The government should subsidize transport or revive rail services as this will allow timely disbursement of inputs and increase limited access to credit facilities form the banks. This could be partly addressed through the establishment and transparent operation of command agriculture.

Creating a favorable environment for banks to lend below the market rate to the manufacturing industry through special fund set up by the government specifically for
agro-industries and command agriculture.

The government should encourage farmers to enhance their production and subsequently ensure the country is self- sufficient in food and raw material supplies. The objective is to ensure that farmers compete and if the farmers compete ultimately as country we will be self- sufficient and wont import maize, beans or wheat.

The government should encourage irrigation to farmers so that there is no moisture stress to their crop and also for them to do soil sampling, which means they put the right fertilizers for their soils. Investment by the government on a lot of chemicals is also needed. In the event of army worm outbreak it will be easy to eradicate and smoothly control.

Many smallholder farmers can’t achieve good yields because they don’t have machinery as they use traditional ploughs, cattle and donkeys for draught power. Thus the government should capacitate command agriculture farmers with tractors, planters, boom sprays and a combine harvester per district to help them harvesting.

The government should encourage farmers into greenhouse farming and increase the number of farmers and land under command production. Command system should develop and in cooperate forward integration with agro-processing firms. Patnering external processing firms should be done also to increase capacity and quality.

The government should use resources like methane gas and once we open a methane gas service then get ammonia, the price of urea will tremendously go down and equally the cost of production goes down. This means our inputs will be competitive compared to other countries in the region.

Agro-based industries are recommended to improve their market share by ensuring they produce high quality products with a definite edge over those of competitors. In addition, they can create a competitive advantage by adding other products that address the different tastes or preferences of their customers.
Government should, as a matter of urgency, solve the frequent power outages and the foreign exchange problems in order to position agro-based industries to be efficient in the
delivery of quality products, and to encourage university students to study agro- business degrees.
The government should motorise agricultural extension officers so that more ground is covered that is motorbikes can be issued as a source of transport for them to visit more farmers. Incentives can also be introduced to motivate extension officers.

Workshops, seminars and refresher courses to be done as per technology changes should be constantly done to equip farmers.

SUPPLIERS UNTERVIEW GUIDE
My name is Willard Dzawo being a fulltime registered student in the General Master of Business Administration (GMBA) Degree Programme at the National University of Science and Technology. As part of the requirements towards the fulfilment of my studies I am carrying out a research titled:
“The impact of Command Agriculture on the performance of agro-food processors supply chains in Bulawayo”.

Dear Respondent,
Please, a study is being conducted on the above topic and would be very grateful if you could respond to the questions developed below. Please, your identity would by no means be revealed in any form; therefore, be at liberty to complete the questionnaire with independent and objective judgment. Information provided shall be treated in strict confidentiality and for academic purpose only.
Your support and cooperation will be greatly appreciated.

Regards
Mr Willard Tendai Dzawo
Email: [email protected]
Cell: +263773 973 805

SECTION A: Demographical Data of Respondents
This section of the questionnaire refers to the background or biographical information. Although, the researcher is aware of the sensitivity of the questions in this section, the information provided would allow comparison of groups of respondents. Once again it is assured that your response would remain anonymous.
1. Gender: a. Male b. Female
2. Age group: a. 20 – 25 b. 26 – 30 c. 31 – 35 d. 36 and above
3. Educational background a. Basic b. Secondary c. Degree
d. Post-Degree e. Others (specify)……………………………………………………………………..
4. Category a. Management b. Staff
5. Years of service a. 1-5 years b. 6-10 years c. 11-15 years d. 16 years and above
6. Company/Organization…….……………………………………………………………………. .
Instructions: Please tick the box that best represents your view or state where appropriate.
SECTION B: This section identifies the impact of command agriculture and major constraints faced by suppliers in the agro-food supply chains business industry in Bulawayo.

7. Can you explain what command agriculture is?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
8. What do you think are the benefits of command agriculture to agro- food suppliers in Bulawayo?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
9. How has your organization benefited from the command agriculture program?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
10. Was there an improvement of sales after the introduction of command agriculture?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

11. By what percentage have your sales improved?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
12. Is your organization coping up with the demand of inputs and raw materials needed by agro- food processors? Please Elaborate
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

13. How has the introduction of SI64 instrument of 2016 benefited local suppliers of agro-food processors?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
14. In your own opinion what do you think should be done to cope up with demand of the agro-food processors?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
15. Which challenges do agro- business suppliers in Bulawayo face in their operations?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
16. What do you think should be done to minimize the challenges faced by agro-business suppliers?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
17. Any other suggestions?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Thank you for completing this interview guide

QUEST
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR AGRO-PROCESSORS
My name is Willard Tendai Dzawo a fulltime registered student in the General Master of Business Administration (GMBA) Degree programme at the National University of Science and Technology. As part of the requirements towards the fulfilment of my studies I am carrying out a research titled:
“The impact of Command Agriculture on the performance of agro-food processors supply chains in Bulawayo”.

Dear Respondent,
Please, a study is being conducted on the above topic and would be very grateful if you could respond to the questions developed below. Please note, your identity would by no means be revealed in any form; therefore, be at liberty to complete the questionnaire with independent and objective judgment. Information provided shall be treated in strict confidentiality and for academic purposes only. Your support and cooperation will be greatly appreciated.

Regards
Mr Willard Tendai Dzawo
Email: [email protected]
Cell: +263773 973 805

Section A. Demographical Data of Respondents
This section of the questionnaire refers to the background or biographical information. Although, the researcher is aware of the sensitivity of the questions in this section, the information provided would allow comparison of groups of respondents. Once again it is assured that your response would remain anonymous.
1. Gender: a. Male b. Female
2. Age group: a. 20 – 25 b. 26 – 30 c. 31 – 35 d. 36 and above
3. Educational background a. Basic b. Secondary c. Degree
d. Post-Degree e. Others (specify)……………………………………………………………………..
4. Category a. Management b. Staff
5. Years of service a. 1-5 years b. 6-10 years c. 11-15 years d. 16 years and above
6. Company/Organization…….……………………………………………………………………. .
Instructions: Please tick the box that best represents your view or state where appropriate.
This section identifies the impact of command agriculture and major constraints facing the establishment of agro-food supply chains business industry in Bulawayo.

7. Are you aware of command agriculture?
a. Yes b. No c. Do not know
8. What are the objectives of command agriculture?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
9. Have you participated or benefited from command agriculture?
a. Yes b. No Do not know
10. How has command agriculture affected the management of your supply chains?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
11. Is there a relationship between command agriculture and agro- food processors?
a. Yes b. No Do not know
12. What type of relationship?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
13. Do agro-business industries in Bulawayo face challenges in their establishment?
a. Yes b. No c. Do not know
14. If yes, what are some of the major challenges facing the industry?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
15. Indicate your level of agreement with the following statements by ticking the appropriate box
Key: 1-Strongly Agree, 2- Agree, 3-Neutral, 4-Disagree, 5-Strongly Agree
Statement 1 2 3 4 5
Inadequate funding is a major challenge to the establishment of agro-business industry in Bulawayo High interest rates on lending capital are major challenges to the establishment of agro- business industry in Bulawayo Strict environmental rules such as land reserves being set by land users or developers restrict the establishment of agro-businesses Does failure to plan for regular participation in resourceful forums and business programs lead to poor establishment and growth of agro business industry? Failure of agro-business enterprises in Bulawayo to exploit and expand their capacities and competencies to maintain strategic competitive advantage retard their operations 16. Any other challenges not listed?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
17. Please rank the level of significance of the following problems facing the establishment of agro-business in Bulawayo
Scale: 1-Highly Significant, 2-Significant, 3-Neutral, 4-Non Significant, 5-Highly non- Significant
Problem facing the establishment of Agro-food supply chains 1 2 3 4 5
Availability of local raw materials International trade barriers
Limited access to credit
High interest rates Fluctuating exchange rates Poor trade policy
Export and import taxes on raw materials Bureaucratic practices High transport costs Lack of support facilities Lack of professional managers Land tenure system Political interference Mistrust among supply chain players Opportunistic behaviour(Kickbacks)
This section assesses the factors that hinder the operations of agro-businesses in Bulawayo
18. Does your enterprise face operational problems?
a. Yes b. No c. Do not know
19. If yes, what are some of the prime problems hindering your routine operations?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
20. Please rank the level of significance of the following constraints facing the routine operations of agro-business enterprises in Bulawayo.

Scale: 1- Highly Significant; 2- Significant; 3 -Neutral; 4- Non-significant; 5 -Highly non-significant.
Problem facing the operations of Agro-food supply chains Level of Significance
1 2 3 4 5
Insufficient raw materials Poor and inconsistent quality of products Lack of good management on processing
The lack of markets to sell
Poor infrastructural development Telecommunications challenges Inconsistent power supply Lack of technical support Poor Government policies Lack of innovation Lack of technological developments Lack of linkages This section ascertains the marketing challenges encountered by agro-business firms in Bulawayo
21. Do agro-business firms in Bulawayo encounter challenges in the marketing of their products?
a. Yes b. No c. Do not know
22. If yes, what are some of the major challenges encountered?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
23. Failure to add value and differentiate products of agro-business firms greatly affects their marketing power. a. Strongly Agree b. Agree c. Neutral d. Disagree e. Strongly Disagree
24.Please rank the level of significance of the following problems facing the marketing of agro-business products in Bulawayo.
Scale: 5- Highly Significant; 4- Significant; 3-Neutral; 2 Non-significant; 1-Highly non-significant.
Problem Facing the Marketing of Agro-business Products
Level of Significance
1 2 3 4 5
The emerging competitive environment The changing customer preferences and tastes
The financial markets
Failure to adapt to changes Failure to search out for prospective market niches
Lack of bigger market to sell produces 25. How effective is command agriculture on agro-food processors in Bulawayo.

a. Very effective b. Effective c. Not sure d. Ineffective
e. Very ineffective
26. Indicated your level of agreement with the statements on the impact of command agriculture on agro- food processors in Bulawayo?
Key: 1- Strongly Agree, 2-Agree, 3-Neutral, 4- Disagree, 5- Strongly Agree
Statement 1 2 3 4 5
Command agriculture has improved raw material availability Improvements in product quality Cost reduction due to command agriculture Has relationship development with suppliers and customers improved Access to markets has improved There is change of trade policy Interest rates are now very low There is no more international trade barriers Trust amongst supply chains has improved Reduction in customer complaints Command agriculture has improved organizational efficiency Customer satisfaction has improved Responsiveness has improved 27. Any other impact on the performance of agro-food processors in Bulawayo?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
28. What are the benefits of command agriculture on the agro- food processors supply chains?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
29. What else do you think should be done to improve the implementation of command agriculture?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Thank you for completing this questionnaire.

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