Home Free Lab ReportsCenospheres Characterization from Indonesian Coal-Fired Power Plant Fly Ash and its Correlation with the Fly Ash’s Chemical Composition Himawan Tri Bayu Murti Petrusa

Cenospheres Characterization from Indonesian Coal-Fired Power Plant Fly Ash and its Correlation with the Fly Ash’s Chemical Composition Himawan Tri Bayu Murti Petrusa

Cenospheres Characterization from Indonesian Coal-Fired Power Plant Fly Ash and its Correlation with the Fly Ash’s Chemical Composition
Himawan Tri Bayu Murti Petrusa, Wisnu Supraptaa, Muhammad Olvianasa, Felix Arie Setiawanb, Ferian Anggarac, Agus Prasetyaa, and Sutijana*
aDepartment of Chemical Engineering (Sustainable Mineral Processing Research Group), Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jalan Grafika No. 2 Kampus UGM Bulaksumur, D. I. Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
bDepartment of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Jember, Jalan Kalimantan No. 37, Jember, Jawa Timur, 68121, Indonesia
cDepartment of Geological Engineering (Unconventional Geo-resources Research Center), Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jalan Grafika No. 2 Kampus UGM Bulaksumur, D. I. Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
*Corresponding Author:
E-mail: [email protected]
Tel.: +628121594442
Declarations of interest: none
Abstract
As the major fuel to generate electricity in power plant unit, Coal has broadly used worldwidely. Namely fly ash, the solid waste resulted from the coal-fired is increasing with the increasing need of coal. Cenospheres, the spherical silica aluminate, have been part of fly ash with superior physical, chemical, mechanical and thermal properties which can be utilized in many products. Indonesia with predictive need of coal occupies 33% of the total energy mix in the year 2025 will indeed face a problematic fly ash management. Meanwhile the investigation on potential cenospheres production has not been conducted. Thus, we conduct this study to provide overall depiction on cenospheres potential and its correlation to fly ash chemical composition in order to be able to understand the cenospheres formation mechanism and to predict the potential production of cenospheres from fly ash. Many aspects affect the cenospheres formation during coal combustion such as coal properties and operating conditions. This work studies the cenospheres characterization and its relationship with fly ash chemical composition from seven coal-fired power plants in Indonesia. For cenospheres characterization SEM-EDS and particle analyzer distribution were applied through all samples. Coal and fly ash chemical composition were analyzed using proximate analysis and ICP-MS. From the characterization of cenospheres and fly ash chemical composition, we correlate the concentration of SiO2, Al2O3, SiO2/Al2O3, Fe2O3, Fe2O3+TiO2, CaO, MgO in the fly ash with cenospheres yield and diameter. Ternary diagram is also presented in this study for further application of cenospheres produced from Indonesia’s coal-fired power plant.

Keywords: Fly ash, Cenospheres, Characterization, Chemical Compositions.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Introduction
Coal is considered as the most feasible fuel to generate electricity at the moment. The abundace of coal is the main factor affecting its feasibility which leads the lower price compared with other fuel sources. In addition effortless and economical technology applied in coal fired power plant triggers the excalation of coal fired power plant ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Mohr</Author><Year>2015</Year><RecNum>124</RecNum><DisplayText>1, 2</DisplayText><record><rec-number>124</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426664″>124</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Mohr, SH</author><author>Wang, Jianliang</author><author>Ellem, Gary</author><author>Ward, James</author><author>Giurco, D %J Fuel</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Projection of world fossil fuels by country</title></titles><pages>120-135</pages><volume>141</volume><dates><year>2015</year></dates><isbn>0016-2361</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Cornot-Gandolphe</Author><Year>2017</Year><RecNum>106</RecNum><record><rec-number>106</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426181″>106</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Indonesia&apos;s Electricity Demand and the Coal Sector: Export Or Meet Domestic Demand?</title></titles><dates><year>2017</year></dates><publisher>Oxford Institute for Energy Studies</publisher><isbn>1784670790</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Mohr</Author><Year>2015</Year><RecNum>124</RecNum><record><rec-number>124</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426664″>124</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Mohr, SH</author><author>Wang, Jianliang</author><author>Ellem, Gary</author><author>Ward, James</author><author>Giurco, D %J Fuel</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Projection of world fossil fuels by country</title></titles><pages>120-135</pages><volume>141</volume><dates><year>2015</year></dates><isbn>0016-2361</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>1, 2, especially in Indonesia, as it can be seen in Fig 1 ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Indonesia</Author><Year>2016</Year><RecNum>126</RecNum><DisplayText>3</DisplayText><record><rec-number>126</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538428111″>126</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Legal Rule or Regulation”>50</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Menteri Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral Republik Indonesia</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Indonesia</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Keputusan Menteri Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral Republik Indonesia No. 5899 K/20/MEM/2016 tentang Pengesahan Rencana Usaha Penyediaan Tenaga Listrik PT </title></titles><dates><year>2016</year></dates><pub-location>Jakarta</pub-location><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>3. As shown in Fig. 1 (a) and (b), there will be significant increase of energy mix in Indonesia based on coal with twice-fold higher within 19 years from 2006-2025. As stated in Indonesian Presidential Regulation No. 5 of 2006, energy demand in the year of 2025 will mostly be supplied by coal with the percentage of 33% from total energy consumption ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Indonesia</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>103</RecNum><DisplayText>3, 4</DisplayText><record><rec-number>103</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426176″>103</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Indonesia, Presiden Republik %J Jakarta: Batan Pertahanan Nasional</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Peraturan Presiden Republik Indonesia Nomor 5 Tahun 2006 Tentang Kebijakan Energi Nasional</title></titles><dates><year>2006</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Indonesia</Author><Year>2016</Year><RecNum>126</RecNum><record><rec-number>126</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538428111″>126</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Legal Rule or Regulation”>50</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Menteri Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral Republik Indonesia</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Indonesia</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Keputusan Menteri Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral Republik Indonesia No. 5899 K/20/MEM/2016 tentang Pengesahan Rencana Usaha Penyediaan Tenaga Listrik PT </title></titles><dates><year>2016</year></dates><pub-location>Jakarta</pub-location><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>3, 4. This coal dependancy in energy sector is also observed in Asia Pacific region at which more than 45% of energy demand will be covered using coal ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Petroleum</Author><Year>2018</Year><RecNum>125</RecNum><DisplayText>5</DisplayText><record><rec-number>125</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538427884″>125</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Report”>27</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>British Petroleum</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>BP Statistical Review of World Energy</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>BP Statistical Review of World Energy</title></titles><edition>67th Ed</edition><dates><year>2018</year><pub-dates><date>June 2018</date></pub-dates></dates><pub-location>London SW1Y 4PD</pub-location><publisher>British Petroleum</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>5. This significant increase of coal usage in power generation, especially in Indonesia, will provide of about 8.31 million tonnes of fly ash in 2019 with 5% per year increase. This abundance of fly ash will posses serious environmental problems, if it is not well managed PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5Kb3NoaTwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjE5OTc8L1llYXI+PFJl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ADDIN EN.CITE PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5Kb3NoaTwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjE5OTc8L1llYXI+PFJl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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 6-9. Somehow, worldwidely, the utilization of fly ash has not been sustainably established with the average percentage of 16% of the total ash ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Ghosal</Author><Year>1995</Year><RecNum>96</RecNum><DisplayText>6, 10, 11</DisplayText><record><rec-number>96</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426164″>96</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ghosal, Sarbajit</author><author>Self, Sidney A %J Fuel</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Particle size-density relation and cenosphere content of coal fly ash</title></titles><pages>522-529</pages><volume>74</volume><number>4</number><dates><year>1995</year></dates><isbn>0016-2361</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Joshi</Author><Year>1997</Year><RecNum>98</RecNum><record><rec-number>98</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426168″>98</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Joshi, Ramesh C</author><author>Lohita, RP</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Fly ash in concrete: production, properties and uses</title></titles><volume>2</volume><dates><year>1997</year></dates><publisher>CRC Press</publisher><isbn>9056995804</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Ranjbar</Author><Year>2017</Year><RecNum>97</RecNum><record><rec-number>97</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426166″>97</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ranjbar, Navid</author><author>Kuenzel, Carsten %J Fuel</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Cenospheres: A review</title></titles><pages>1-12</pages><volume>207</volume><dates><year>2017</year></dates><isbn>0016-2361</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>6, 10, 11. Most of the utilization is based on the material construction, soil amendment, zeolite synthesis, and as filler in polymers PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5BY2FyPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAxNjwvWWVhcj48UmVj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 EN.CITE PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5BY2FyPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAxNjwvWWVhcj48UmVj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 EN.CITE.DATA 12-17. Other fly ash utilization is based on cenospheres recovery PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5ISVJBSklNQTwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMDg8L1llYXI+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ADDIN EN.CITE PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5ISVJBSklNQTwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMDg8L1llYXI+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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 18-21. Cenospheres derives from fly ash produced during coal combustion which could be utilized into valuable products, such as lightweight construction products, syntactic foams, functionally gradient materials, metal-matrix composites rubbers, nickel coated cenospheres for shielding and microwave absorption applications, mullite-coated diesel engine components, metallic alloy and porous glass crystalline PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5WYXNzaWxldjwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMDQ8L1llYXI+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ADDIN EN.CITE PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5WYXNzaWxldjwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMDQ8L1llYXI+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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 11, 17, 22-26.

The amount of cenospheres in fly ash varies between 0.01–4.8%, commonly 0.3–1.5% ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Vassilev</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>109</RecNum><DisplayText>22</DisplayText><record><rec-number>109</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426186″>109</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Vassilev, Stanislav V</author><author>Menendez, Rosa</author><author>Diaz-Somoano, Mercedes</author><author>Martinez-Tarazona, M Rosa %J Fuel</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Phase-mineral and chemical composition of coal fly ashes as a basis for their multicomponent utilization. 2. Characterization of ceramic cenosphere and salt concentrates</title></titles><pages>585-603</pages><volume>83</volume><number>4-5</number><dates><year>2004</year></dates><isbn>0016-2361</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>22. The physical structure of cenospheres has been studied by many researchers. The bulk density of Cenosphere typically is 0.2-0.5 g/cm3; size of 20-200 µm and shell thickness to diameter ratio of 2.5-10.5 ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Anshits</Author><Year>2010</Year><RecNum>112</RecNum><DisplayText>17, 27</DisplayText><record><rec-number>112</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426192″>112</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Anshits, NN</author><author>Mikhailova, OA</author><author>Salanov, AN</author><author>Anshits, AG %J Fuel</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Chemical composition and structure of the shell of fly ash non-perforated cenospheres produced from the combustion of the Kuznetsk coal (Russia)</title></titles><pages>1849-1862</pages><volume>89</volume><number>8</number><dates><year>2010</year></dates><isbn>0016-2361</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Li</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>128</RecNum><record><rec-number>128</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538428889″>128</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Li, Yi</author><author>Wu, Hongwei %J Energy</author><author>Fuels</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Ash cenosphere from solid fuels combustion. Part 1: An investigation into its formation mechanism using pyrite as a model fuel</title></titles><pages>130-137</pages><volume>26</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2011</year></dates><isbn>0887-0624</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>17, 27. Cenospheres has identifiable favorable properties such as low density; high compressive strength; superior insulation; less water absorption; high purity; good thermal resistance and electrical properties PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5Lb2xheTwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMTQ8L1llYXI+PFJl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ADDIN EN.CITE PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5Lb2xheTwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMTQ8L1llYXI+PFJl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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 11, 17, 23, 25. Many studies have been tried to correlate the particle size and density, resulting that density lower than 0.857 g/cm3 has diameter between 50 and 150 µm (80% w.t.), 150 and 200 µm (15% w.t.), and 200 and 250 µm (5% w.t.) and density lower than 1.282 g/cm3 consists of diameter between 40 and 50 µm (10% w.t.), 50 and 100 µm (50% w.t.), 100 and 110 µm (20% w.t.) and 110 and 150 µm (20% w.t.) PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5BbnNoaXRzPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAxMDwvWWVhcj48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ADDIN EN.CITE PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5BbnNoaXRzPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAxMDwvWWVhcj48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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 24-27.

The formation of cenospheres during pulverized coal combustion can be identified by a several important factors, namely coal properties; characteristics of ash droplets; and combustion conditions PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5MaTwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMTE8L1llYXI+PFJlY051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ADDIN EN.CITE PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5MaTwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMTE8L1llYXI+PFJlY051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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 17, 22, 28. Coal properties regarding with chemical composition must have strong relation with cenospheres formation. There are three types of substances in the coal namely organic maters, crystalline and amorphous material. Due to high temperature during the combustion of coal, crystalline and amorphous material are burdened by further process such as decomposition, dehydration, and reaction. At this stage, the remaining product consists of amorphous glass phase (29 to 90 wt. %) and some crystalline phases PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5Ecm96aHpoaW48L0F1dGhvcj48WWVhcj4yMDA4PC9ZZWFy
PjxSZWNOdW0+MTIyPC9SZWNOdW0+PERpc3BsYXlUZXh0PlsxNCwgMTYsIDI5LCAzMF08L0Rpc3Bs
YXlUZXh0PjxyZWNvcmQ+PHJlYy1udW1iZXI+MTIyPC9yZWMtbnVtYmVyPjxmb3JlaWduLWtleXM+
PGtleSBhcHA9IkVOIiBkYi1pZD0iNTBmZXJ6c2Q1MDBmc29lcGVmdHZhYTJyOXp3ZXI5djJ0YWRh
IiB0aW1lc3RhbXA9IjE1Mzg0MjYyMDkiPjEyMjwva2V5PjwvZm9yZWlnbi1rZXlzPjxyZWYtdHlw
ZSBuYW1lPSJKb3VybmFsIEFydGljbGUiPjE3PC9yZWYtdHlwZT48Y29udHJpYnV0b3JzPjxhdXRo
b3JzPjxhdXRob3I+RHJvemh6aGluLCBWUzwvYXV0aG9yPjxhdXRob3I+U2hwaXJ0LCBNIFlhPC9h
dXRob3I+PGF1dGhvcj5EYW5pbGluLCBMRDwvYXV0aG9yPjxhdXRob3I+S3V2YWV2LCBNRDwvYXV0
aG9yPjxhdXRob3I+UGlrdWxpbiwgSVY8L2F1dGhvcj48YXV0aG9yPlBvdGVta2luLCBHQTwvYXV0
aG9yPjxhdXRob3I+UmVkeXVzaGV2LCBTQSAlSiBTb2xpZCBmdWVsIGNoZW1pc3RyeTwvYXV0aG9y
PjwvYXV0aG9ycz48L2NvbnRyaWJ1dG9ycz48dGl0bGVzPjx0aXRsZT5Gb3JtYXRpb24gcHJvY2Vz
c2VzIGFuZCBtYWluIHByb3BlcnRpZXMgb2YgaG9sbG93IGFsdW1pbm9zaWxpY2F0ZSBtaWNyb3Nw
aGVyZXMgaW4gZmx5IGFzaCBmcm9tIHRoZXJtYWwgcG93ZXIgc3RhdGlvbnM8L3RpdGxlPjwvdGl0
bGVzPjxwYWdlcz4xMDctMTE5PC9wYWdlcz48dm9sdW1lPjQyPC92b2x1bWU+PG51bWJlcj4yPC9u
dW1iZXI+PGRhdGVzPjx5ZWFyPjIwMDg8L3llYXI+PC9kYXRlcz48aXNibj4wMzYxLTUyMTk8L2lz
Ym4+PHVybHM+PC91cmxzPjwvcmVjb3JkPjwvQ2l0ZT48Q2l0ZT48QXV0aG9yPkZvbWVua288L0F1
dGhvcj48WWVhcj4yMDE1PC9ZZWFyPjxSZWNOdW0+MTI3PC9SZWNOdW0+PHJlY29yZD48cmVjLW51
bWJlcj4xMjc8L3JlYy1udW1iZXI+PGZvcmVpZ24ta2V5cz48a2V5IGFwcD0iRU4iIGRiLWlkPSI1
MGZlcnpzZDUwMGZzb2VwZWZ0dmFhMnI5endlcjl2MnRhZGEiIHRpbWVzdGFtcD0iMTUzODQyODY5
NCI+MTI3PC9rZXk+PC9mb3JlaWduLWtleXM+PHJlZi10eXBlIG5hbWU9IkpvdXJuYWwgQXJ0aWNs
ZSI+MTc8L3JlZi10eXBlPjxjb250cmlidXRvcnM+PGF1dGhvcnM+PGF1dGhvcj5Gb21lbmtvLCBF
bGVuYSBWPC9hdXRob3I+PGF1dGhvcj5BbnNoaXRzLCBOYXRhbGlhIE48L2F1dGhvcj48YXV0aG9y
PlZhc2lsaWV2YSwgTmF0YWx5IEc8L2F1dGhvcj48YXV0aG9yPk1pa2hheWxvdmEsIE9sZ2EgQTwv
YXV0aG9yPjxhdXRob3I+Um9nb3ZlbmtvLCBFbGVuYSBTPC9hdXRob3I+PGF1dGhvcj5aaGl6aGFl
diwgQW5hdG9saXkgTTwvYXV0aG9yPjxhdXRob3I+QW5zaGl0cywgQWxleGFuZGVyIEcgJUogRW5l
cmd5PC9hdXRob3I+PGF1dGhvcj5GdWVsczwvYXV0aG9yPjwvYXV0aG9ycz48L2NvbnRyaWJ1dG9y
cz48dGl0bGVzPjx0aXRsZT5DaGFyYWN0ZXJpemF0aW9uIG9mIGZseSBhc2ggY2Vub3NwaGVyZXMg
cHJvZHVjZWQgZnJvbSB0aGUgY29tYnVzdGlvbiBvZiBFa2liYXN0dXogY29hbDwvdGl0bGU+PC90
aXRsZXM+PHBhZ2VzPjUzOTAtNTQwMzwvcGFnZXM+PHZvbHVtZT4yOTwvdm9sdW1lPjxudW1iZXI+
ODwvbnVtYmVyPjxkYXRlcz48eWVhcj4yMDE1PC95ZWFyPjwvZGF0ZXM+PGlzYm4+MDg4Ny0wNjI0
PC9pc2JuPjx1cmxzPjwvdXJscz48L3JlY29yZD48L0NpdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5Hb29kYXJ6
aTwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMDY8L1llYXI+PFJlY051bT4xMTc8L1JlY051bT48cmVjb3JkPjxy
ZWMtbnVtYmVyPjExNzwvcmVjLW51bWJlcj48Zm9yZWlnbi1rZXlzPjxrZXkgYXBwPSJFTiIgZGIt
aWQ9IjUwZmVyenNkNTAwZnNvZXBlZnR2YWEycjl6d2VyOXYydGFkYSIgdGltZXN0YW1wPSIxNTM4
NDI2MjAzIj4xMTc8L2tleT48L2ZvcmVpZ24ta2V5cz48cmVmLXR5cGUgbmFtZT0iSm91cm5hbCBB
cnRpY2xlIj4xNzwvcmVmLXR5cGU+PGNvbnRyaWJ1dG9ycz48YXV0aG9ycz48YXV0aG9yPkdvb2Rh
cnppLCBGYXJpYm9yeiAlSiBGdWVsPC9hdXRob3I+PC9hdXRob3JzPjwvY29udHJpYnV0b3JzPjx0
aXRsZXM+PHRpdGxlPkNoYXJhY3RlcmlzdGljcyBhbmQgY29tcG9zaXRpb24gb2YgZmx5IGFzaCBm
cm9tIENhbmFkaWFuIGNvYWwtZmlyZWQgcG93ZXIgcGxhbnRzPC90aXRsZT48L3RpdGxlcz48cGFn
ZXM+MTQxOC0xNDI3PC9wYWdlcz48dm9sdW1lPjg1PC92b2x1bWU+PG51bWJlcj4xMC0xMTwvbnVt
YmVyPjxkYXRlcz48eWVhcj4yMDA2PC95ZWFyPjwvZGF0ZXM+PGlzYm4+MDAxNi0yMzYxPC9pc2Ju
Pjx1cmxzPjwvdXJscz48L3JlY29yZD48L0NpdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5WYXNzaWxldjwvQXV0
aG9yPjxZZWFyPjE5OTY8L1llYXI+PFJlY051bT4xMTU8L1JlY051bT48cmVjb3JkPjxyZWMtbnVt
YmVyPjExNTwvcmVjLW51bWJlcj48Zm9yZWlnbi1rZXlzPjxrZXkgYXBwPSJFTiIgZGItaWQ9IjUw
ZmVyenNkNTAwZnNvZXBlZnR2YWEycjl6d2VyOXYydGFkYSIgdGltZXN0YW1wPSIxNTM4NDI2MTk5
Ij4xMTU8L2tleT48L2ZvcmVpZ24ta2V5cz48cmVmLXR5cGUgbmFtZT0iSm91cm5hbCBBcnRpY2xl
Ij4xNzwvcmVmLXR5cGU+PGNvbnRyaWJ1dG9ycz48YXV0aG9ycz48YXV0aG9yPlZhc3NpbGV2LCBT
dGFuaXNsYXYgVjwvYXV0aG9yPjxhdXRob3I+VmFzc2lsZXZhLCBDaHJpc3RpbmEgRyAlSiBGdWVs
IFByb2Nlc3NpbmcgVGVjaG5vbG9neTwvYXV0aG9yPjwvYXV0aG9ycz48L2NvbnRyaWJ1dG9ycz48
dGl0bGVzPjx0aXRsZT5NaW5lcmFsb2d5IG9mIGNvbWJ1c3Rpb24gd2FzdGVzIGZyb20gY29hbC1m
aXJlZCBwb3dlciBzdGF0aW9uczwvdGl0bGU+PC90aXRsZXM+PHBhZ2VzPjI2MS0yODA8L3BhZ2Vz
Pjx2b2x1bWU+NDc8L3ZvbHVtZT48bnVtYmVyPjM8L251bWJlcj48ZGF0ZXM+PHllYXI+MTk5Njwv
eWVhcj48L2RhdGVzPjxpc2JuPjAzNzgtMzgyMDwvaXNibj48dXJscz48L3VybHM+PC9yZWNvcmQ+
PC9DaXRlPjwvRW5kTm90ZT5=
ADDIN EN.CITE PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5Ecm96aHpoaW48L0F1dGhvcj48WWVhcj4yMDA4PC9ZZWFy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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 14, 16, 29, 30. The major mineralogy constituent of microcrystalline contains several crystalline form such as quartz, lime, periclase, etc. PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5Hb29kYXJ6aTwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMDY8L1llYXI+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ADDIN EN.CITE PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5Hb29kYXJ6aTwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMDY8L1llYXI+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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 29, 31, 32. Furthermore, the important aspect from the coal properties could be drawn from ash content and its coal properties. Accordingly, cenospheres yield appeared to be positively correlated with the total ash content in the coal ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Ghosal</Author><Year>1995</Year><RecNum>96</RecNum><DisplayText>10</DisplayText><record><rec-number>96</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426164″>96</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ghosal, Sarbajit</author><author>Self, Sidney A %J Fuel</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Particle size-density relation and cenosphere content of coal fly ash</title></titles><pages>522-529</pages><volume>74</volume><number>4</number><dates><year>1995</year></dates><isbn>0016-2361</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>10. Proximate analysis of fly ash would be a very useful tool to determine the coal properties ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Yi</Author><Year>2017</Year><RecNum>113</RecNum><DisplayText>28</DisplayText><record><rec-number>113</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426194″>113</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Yi, Lan</author><author>Feng, Jie</author><author>Qin, Yu-Hong</author><author>Li, Wen-Ying %J Fuel</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Prediction of elemental composition of coal using proximate analysis</title></titles><pages>315-321</pages><volume>193</volume><dates><year>2017</year></dates><isbn>0016-2361</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>28.

There are two hypothesis for cenospheres formation process which have been proposed ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Ranjbar</Author><Year>2017</Year><RecNum>97</RecNum><DisplayText>11</DisplayText><record><rec-number>97</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426166″>97</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ranjbar, Navid</author><author>Kuenzel, Carsten %J Fuel</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Cenospheres: A review</title></titles><pages>1-12</pages><volume>207</volume><dates><year>2017</year></dates><isbn>0016-2361</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>11. Firstly, the most accepted one, condensed gases formed during decomposition of several substances and evaporation of water escalate the molten up to 500 mm, forming spherical and hollow particles PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5MaTwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMTE8L1llYXI+PFJlY051
bT4xMjg8L1JlY051bT48RGlzcGxheVRleHQ+WzE3LCAyMiwgMjZdPC9EaXNwbGF5VGV4dD48cmVj
b3JkPjxyZWMtbnVtYmVyPjEyODwvcmVjLW51bWJlcj48Zm9yZWlnbi1rZXlzPjxrZXkgYXBwPSJF
TiIgZGItaWQ9IjUwZmVyenNkNTAwZnNvZXBlZnR2YWEycjl6d2VyOXYydGFkYSIgdGltZXN0YW1w
PSIxNTM4NDI4ODg5Ij4xMjg8L2tleT48L2ZvcmVpZ24ta2V5cz48cmVmLXR5cGUgbmFtZT0iSm91
cm5hbCBBcnRpY2xlIj4xNzwvcmVmLXR5cGU+PGNvbnRyaWJ1dG9ycz48YXV0aG9ycz48YXV0aG9y
PkxpLCBZaTwvYXV0aG9yPjxhdXRob3I+V3UsIEhvbmd3ZWkgJUogRW5lcmd5PC9hdXRob3I+PGF1
dGhvcj5GdWVsczwvYXV0aG9yPjwvYXV0aG9ycz48L2NvbnRyaWJ1dG9ycz48dGl0bGVzPjx0aXRs
ZT5Bc2ggY2Vub3NwaGVyZSBmcm9tIHNvbGlkIGZ1ZWxzIGNvbWJ1c3Rpb24uIFBhcnQgMTogQW4g
aW52ZXN0aWdhdGlvbiBpbnRvIGl0cyBmb3JtYXRpb24gbWVjaGFuaXNtIHVzaW5nIHB5cml0ZSBh
cyBhIG1vZGVsIGZ1ZWw8L3RpdGxlPjwvdGl0bGVzPjxwYWdlcz4xMzAtMTM3PC9wYWdlcz48dm9s
dW1lPjI2PC92b2x1bWU+PG51bWJlcj4xPC9udW1iZXI+PGRhdGVzPjx5ZWFyPjIwMTE8L3llYXI+
PC9kYXRlcz48aXNibj4wODg3LTA2MjQ8L2lzYm4+PHVybHM+PC91cmxzPjwvcmVjb3JkPjwvQ2l0
ZT48Q2l0ZT48QXV0aG9yPlZhc3NpbGV2PC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAwNDwvWWVhcj48UmVjTnVt
PjEwOTwvUmVjTnVtPjxyZWNvcmQ+PHJlYy1udW1iZXI+MTA5PC9yZWMtbnVtYmVyPjxmb3JlaWdu
LWtleXM+PGtleSBhcHA9IkVOIiBkYi1pZD0iNTBmZXJ6c2Q1MDBmc29lcGVmdHZhYTJyOXp3ZXI5
djJ0YWRhIiB0aW1lc3RhbXA9IjE1Mzg0MjYxODYiPjEwOTwva2V5PjwvZm9yZWlnbi1rZXlzPjxy
ZWYtdHlwZSBuYW1lPSJKb3VybmFsIEFydGljbGUiPjE3PC9yZWYtdHlwZT48Y29udHJpYnV0b3Jz
PjxhdXRob3JzPjxhdXRob3I+VmFzc2lsZXYsIFN0YW5pc2xhdiBWPC9hdXRob3I+PGF1dGhvcj5N
ZW5lbmRleiwgUm9zYTwvYXV0aG9yPjxhdXRob3I+RGlhei1Tb21vYW5vLCBNZXJjZWRlczwvYXV0
aG9yPjxhdXRob3I+TWFydGluZXotVGFyYXpvbmEsIE0gUm9zYSAlSiBGdWVsPC9hdXRob3I+PC9h
dXRob3JzPjwvY29udHJpYnV0b3JzPjx0aXRsZXM+PHRpdGxlPlBoYXNlLW1pbmVyYWwgYW5kIGNo
ZW1pY2FsIGNvbXBvc2l0aW9uIG9mIGNvYWwgZmx5IGFzaGVzIGFzIGEgYmFzaXMgZm9yIHRoZWly
IG11bHRpY29tcG9uZW50IHV0aWxpemF0aW9uLiAyLiBDaGFyYWN0ZXJpemF0aW9uIG9mIGNlcmFt
aWMgY2Vub3NwaGVyZSBhbmQgc2FsdCBjb25jZW50cmF0ZXM8L3RpdGxlPjwvdGl0bGVzPjxwYWdl
cz41ODUtNjAzPC9wYWdlcz48dm9sdW1lPjgzPC92b2x1bWU+PG51bWJlcj40LTU8L251bWJlcj48
ZGF0ZXM+PHllYXI+MjAwNDwveWVhcj48L2RhdGVzPjxpc2JuPjAwMTYtMjM2MTwvaXNibj48dXJs
cz48L3VybHM+PC9yZWNvcmQ+PC9DaXRlPjxDaXRlPjxBdXRob3I+xbt5cmtvd3NraTwvQXV0aG9y
PjxZZWFyPjIwMTY8L1llYXI+PFJlY051bT4xMTE8L1JlY051bT48cmVjb3JkPjxyZWMtbnVtYmVy
PjExMTwvcmVjLW51bWJlcj48Zm9yZWlnbi1rZXlzPjxrZXkgYXBwPSJFTiIgZGItaWQ9IjUwZmVy
enNkNTAwZnNvZXBlZnR2YWEycjl6d2VyOXYydGFkYSIgdGltZXN0YW1wPSIxNTM4NDI2MTkwIj4x
MTE8L2tleT48L2ZvcmVpZ24ta2V5cz48cmVmLXR5cGUgbmFtZT0iSm91cm5hbCBBcnRpY2xlIj4x
NzwvcmVmLXR5cGU+PGNvbnRyaWJ1dG9ycz48YXV0aG9ycz48YXV0aG9yPsW7eXJrb3dza2ksIE1h
Y2llajwvYXV0aG9yPjxhdXRob3I+TmV0bywgUnVpIENvc3RhPC9hdXRob3I+PGF1dGhvcj5TYW50
b3MsIEx1aXMgRjwvYXV0aG9yPjxhdXRob3I+V2l0a293c2tpLCBLYXJvbCAlSiBGdWVsPC9hdXRo
b3I+PC9hdXRob3JzPjwvY29udHJpYnV0b3JzPjx0aXRsZXM+PHRpdGxlPkNoYXJhY3Rlcml6YXRp
b24gb2YgZmx5LWFzaCBjZW5vc3BoZXJlcyBmcm9tIGNvYWwtZmlyZWQgcG93ZXIgcGxhbnQgdW5p
dDwvdGl0bGU+PC90aXRsZXM+PHBhZ2VzPjQ5LTUzPC9wYWdlcz48dm9sdW1lPjE3NDwvdm9sdW1l
PjxkYXRlcz48eWVhcj4yMDE2PC95ZWFyPjwvZGF0ZXM+PGlzYm4+MDAxNi0yMzYxPC9pc2JuPjx1
cmxzPjwvdXJscz48L3JlY29yZD48L0NpdGU+PC9FbmROb3RlPn==
ADDIN EN.CITE PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5MaTwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMTE8L1llYXI+PFJlY051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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 17, 22, 26. Secondly, flue gas is trapped into the molten ash droplets when the temperature drops ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Sokol</Author><Year>2000</Year><RecNum>116</RecNum><DisplayText>32</DisplayText><record><rec-number>116</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426201″>116</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Sokol, EV</author><author>Maksimova, NV</author><author>Volkova, NI</author><author>Nigmatulina, EN</author><author>Frenkel, AE %J Fuel Processing Technology</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Hollow silicate microspheres from fly ashes of the Chelyabinsk brown coals (South Urals, Russia)</title></titles><pages>35-52</pages><volume>67</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2000</year></dates><isbn>0378-3820</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>32. However, after solidification, these hollow spheres are called cenospheres. These mechanisms are important to study the reaction process during combustion because broad derived products of cenospheres have been obtained from power plant coal combustion.

Commonly, there are several methods for separating cenospheres from fly ash which are sink-float method; centrifugal separation; and combination of hydro and aerodynamic separation ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Ranjbar</Author><Year>2017</Year><RecNum>97</RecNum><DisplayText>11</DisplayText><record><rec-number>97</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426166″>97</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ranjbar, Navid</author><author>Kuenzel, Carsten %J Fuel</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Cenospheres: A review</title></titles><pages>1-12</pages><volume>207</volume><dates><year>2017</year></dates><isbn>0016-2361</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>11. The frequently used method is the sink-float method exercised water as the medium for density difference. Another method to determine the amount of ash cenospheres in fly ash is centrifugal separation. Centrifugal, also, employs separation process due to density difference of cenosphre and its media such as water, lithium metatungstate solutions, and combined solvent (mixing carbon tetrachloride, dibromomethane, and di-iodomethane) with density 1.5, 2.0, and 2.2 g/cm3 respectively PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5Gb21lbmtvPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAxNDwvWWVhcj48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ADDIN EN.CITE PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5Gb21lbmtvPC9BdXRob3I+PFllYXI+MjAxNDwvWWVhcj48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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 5, 11, 15. However, some integrated method with combination of dry fluid bed gravity separation technology and carefree cyclone technology also could be employed to detached cenospheres ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Neupane</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>100</RecNum><DisplayText>7, 8, 11</DisplayText><record><rec-number>100</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426171″>100</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Neupane, Ghanashyam</author><author>Donahoe, Rona J %J Fuel</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Leachability of elements in alkaline and acidic coal fly ash samples during batch and column leaching tests</title></titles><pages>758-770</pages><volume>104</volume><dates><year>2013</year></dates><isbn>0016-2361</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Patra</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>101</RecNum><record><rec-number>101</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426173″>101</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Patra, KC</author><author>Rautray, Tapash R</author><author>Nayak, P %J Applied Radiation</author><author>Isotopes</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Analysis of grains grown on fly ash treated soils</title></titles><pages>1797-1802</pages><volume>70</volume><number>8</number><dates><year>2012</year></dates><isbn>0969-8043</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Ranjbar</Author><Year>2017</Year><RecNum>97</RecNum><record><rec-number>97</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426166″>97</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ranjbar, Navid</author><author>Kuenzel, Carsten %J Fuel</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Cenospheres: A review</title></titles><pages>1-12</pages><volume>207</volume><dates><year>2017</year></dates><isbn>0016-2361</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>7, 8, 11.

The major elements in cenospheres are a mixture of aluminosilicate with a moderate amount of Ca, Fe, K, Mg and limited occurrence of Na, Ti, S, P and trace elements. Ternary phase diagram is developed to allow a better overview of fly ash and cenospheres, based on the ‘intersection’ of their major oxides among the following groups of oxides: SiO2 + Al2O3 + K2O+TiO2+ P2O5; calcic: CaO + MgO + SO3 (oxides) + Na2O; and ferric: Fe2O3. As observed, depending on the chemical composition of fly ash and cenospheres, they can be classified in subgroups: Sialic; Ferrocalsialic; Ferrosialic; Calsialic; Ferrocalcic and Calcic. The chemical compositions can vary each other because inorganic substances of the coal are not homogeneously distributed PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5QYXRyYTwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMTI8L1llYXI+PFJl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ADDIN EN.CITE PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5QYXRyYTwvQXV0aG9yPjxZZWFyPjIwMTI8L1llYXI+PFJl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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 7, 24, 26.
Aside from their benefits and ultimate characteristic for multi products derivation, cenospheres from Indonesian coal-fired power plants have not been studied. Thus, the objective of this work is to characterize and to corrrelate the chemical composition and structure of fly ash with obtained cenospheres from seven coal-fired power plants in Indonesia. In order to have a comprehensive study, detail properties of the cenospheres have observed using several techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and Particle Size Analyzer (PSA). Coal properties and fly ash chemical composition have been identified using proximate analysis and Induced Coupled Plasma-Mass Sprectroscopy (ICP-MS) to identify the correlation with the cenospheres’s yield.

Materials and method
Coal and fly ash samples were collected from seven coal-based power plants in Indonesia, i.e.: Tanjung Jati B (TJB), UBJOM Paiton, Indramayu, Tuban, Pacitan, Paiton and Rembang as shown in Figure 2. To determine the chemical compositions, those samples were analyzed by ALS Canada Ltd. using ICP-MS and method of ME-ICP06, OA-GRA05 with analysis certificate of VA17182839.
In order to quantitatively determine the amounts of cenospheres in fly ash, float and sink tests were conducted. A mixture of 10 wt. % was prepared using 50 g of fly ash and 500 mL of distilled water. Ultrasonic vibration (Elmasonic S300H) was applied for 15 min to ensure the stability of individual particles. The suspension was then poured into a 1 L separatory funnel. The separatory funnel was then placed in a holder attached to a vertical pole and was left to stand for 24 hours. Thereafter, the float and tail products were collected, drained through a 0.2 ?m paper filter, dried at 550 °C for 5 hours using laboratory furnace to remove the unburnt carbon, and then weighted after cooling to ambient temperature. The float product was consisted of cenospheres, while the tail product was consisted of coal fly ash particles. The procedures were repeated three times for each fly ash and cenospheres’s yield was calculated from the average value.

Further analyses were conducted on cenospheres using SEM-EDS and PSA. The SEM used in this study is JEOL JSM-6510LA equiped with JED-2300 EDS. SEM analysis was operated using an accelerating voltage of 20 kV. The SEM images were used to interpret the morphology of cenospheres particles. The particle size distributions of the cenospheres were determined using a Horiba SZ-100. Samples were prepared as 1% suspension of cenospheres and distilled water. To ensure the stability of the individual particles, a liquid dispersant was added to the suspension.
Results and Discussion
The analysis of chemical compositions of coal, fly ash, and cenospheres are mandatory to find the relationships of cenospheres formation during the coal combustion process. The proximate analysis of coal and chemical composition analysis of fly ash and cenospheres can be seen in Table 1, 2, and 3 respectively. Analysis for diameter of cenospheres gained is also necessary to draw connection of reaction mechanism during combustion which is also being affected by the chemical composition of fly ash. The diameter of cenospheres could be seen in Fig. 8. The chemical composition analysis of fly ash and cenospheres were conducted generally without division in size range alike other researchers PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5GaXNoZXI8L0F1dGhvcj48WWVhcj4xOTc2PC9ZZWFyPjxS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ADDIN EN.CITE PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5GaXNoZXI8L0F1dGhvcj48WWVhcj4xOTc2PC9ZZWFyPjxS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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 17, 22, 23, 33.

From Table 1, the data show that mostly fixed carbon + volatile matter (% wt.) values are above 95 percent with ash content vary from 1.81 until 5.31 percent. Those data represents the quality of coal used in power plant. The more fixed carbon + volatile matter (% wt.) value, the better the quality of coal is, although, the yield of cenospheres should be decreased with the less percentage of ash content. The detailed relationship of ash content and cenospheres yield is discussed in the next chapter. Table 2 and 3 shows the characteristic of fly ash and cenospheres respectively. The chemical composition of fly ash and cenospheres is slightly similar because cenospheres is known as by-product of fly ash.
Relationship between yield of cenospheres and fly ash’s chemical composition
Cenospheres generally are a mixture of aluminosilicate with a fair amount of others substances, such as Ca, Fe, K, Mg, LOI and limited occurrence of Na, Ti, S, P and trace elements ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Ranjbar;/Author;;Year;2017;/Year;;RecNum;97;/RecNum;;DisplayText;11;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;97;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426166″;97;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Ranjbar, Navid;/author;;author;Kuenzel, Carsten %J Fuel;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Cenospheres: A review;/title;;/titles;;pages;1-12;/pages;;volume;207;/volume;;dates;;year;2017;/year;;/dates;;isbn;0016-2361;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;11. To distinguish fly ash and cenospheres type in this study, a ternary phase diagram was developed regarded on their major oxides as follows: ferric: Fe2O3; calcic: CaO+MgO+SO3+Na2O; and oxides: SiO2+Al2O3+K2O+TiO2+P2O5. The ternary diagram is presented at Fig. 3 with mostly of the samples, cenospheres, are in ferrocalsialic. It means that the cenospheres produced from the power plant are magnetic particles as ferrocalsialic nature. Furthermore, Cenosphres mostly located in sialic and ferrocalsialic area ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Ranjbar;/Author;;Year;2017;/Year;;RecNum;97;/RecNum;;DisplayText;11;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;97;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426166″;97;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Ranjbar, Navid;/author;;author;Kuenzel, Carsten %J Fuel;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Cenospheres: A review;/title;;/titles;;pages;1-12;/pages;;volume;207;/volume;;dates;;year;2017;/year;;/dates;;isbn;0016-2361;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;11.

The mechanism of cenospheres reaction has been develop by many researcher PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5Ecm96aHpoaW48L0F1dGhvcj48WWVhcj4yMDA4PC9ZZWFy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ADDIN EN.CITE PEVuZE5vdGU+PENpdGU+PEF1dGhvcj5Ecm96aHpoaW48L0F1dGhvcj48WWVhcj4yMDA4PC9ZZWFy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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA 14, 29-32, 34. The first ideal condition to describe the cenospheres formation is by comparing the amount of fly ash formed directly yielding in cenospheres. Meanwhile, the value of float and sink tests result can be seen at Fig. 4. The more fly ash formed in coal combustion, duly, the more cenospheres obtained is; which also can be seen from Fig. 5. Although, the R-squared value of Fig. 5 is very small, 0.498. It is believed due to out-layered data of Tuban power plant, 2.68 percent of ash content. Furthermore, the composition of coal used in Tuban power plant is roughly different with others. From Table 2, the value of Si/Al from fly-ash analysis is below 2 (others are more than 2). It confirms that the value of SiO2/Al2O3 from fly-ash greatly affects the cenospheres yield.

Comprehensive comparison between each substances and cenospheres yield was conducted to see the effect of chemical substance in the cenospheres production. As mentioned by many researchers ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Drozhzhin;/Author;;Year;2008;/Year;;RecNum;122;/RecNum;;DisplayText;14, 17;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;122;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426209″;122;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Drozhzhin, VS;/author;;author;Shpirt, M Ya;/author;;author;Danilin, LD;/author;;author;Kuvaev, MD;/author;;author;Pikulin, IV;/author;;author;Potemkin, GA;/author;;author;Redyushev, SA %J Solid fuel chemistry;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Formation processes and main properties of hollow aluminosilicate microspheres in fly ash from thermal power stations;/title;;/titles;;pages;107-119;/pages;;volume;42;/volume;;number;2;/number;;dates;;year;2008;/year;;/dates;;isbn;0361-5219;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;Cite;;Author;Li;/Author;;Year;2011;/Year;;RecNum;128;/RecNum;;record;;rec-number;128;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538428889″;128;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Li, Yi;/author;;author;Wu, Hongwei %J Energy;/author;;author;Fuels;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Ash cenosphere from solid fuels combustion. Part 1: An investigation into its formation mechanism using pyrite as a model fuel;/title;;/titles;;pages;130-137;/pages;;volume;26;/volume;;number;1;/number;;dates;;year;2011;/year;;/dates;;isbn;0887-0624;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;14, 17, the chemical components in fly ash directly were affected by the chemical composition of coal and combustion condition. As a result, if the correlation of fly ash composition can predict the cenospheres yield, the upscaling process of cenospheres utilization will be easily drawn to calculate the amount of cenospheres produced. In the recent study, the relationship analysis between major component of SiO2, Al2O3, SiO2/Al2O3, Fe2O3, Fe2O3+TiO2, CaO, MgO and yield was conducted and presented in Fig. 9-15(a) respectively. It can be seen that the more SiO2 and Al2O3, the more cenospheres is gained. Meanwhile, others chemicals give opposite result; the more SiO2/Al2O3, Fe2O3, Fe2O3+TiO2, CaO, and MgO, less cenospheres is gained. The values of R-squared from data fitting for chemical components and yield are vary 0.66 – 0.84 which still be acceptable.

From the data, it could be concluded that the value of ash content greatly affects the yield of cenospheres. Meanwhile, the amount of fly ash produced, undeniable, have chemical composition which also influences the yield of cenospheres produced with different alteration of every substances. The chemical composition of fly ash is affected by the coal properties; coal type, particle size, and mineral characterization; and combustion parameters; strongly believed such as temperature, pressure, combustion duration, and oxygen fraction because those parameters directly affect the reaction mechanism during combustion process. As it is well recognized that reaction is affected by amount of reactant (coal type, mineral characterization, and oxygen fraction), collation factor (particle size), time (combustion duration in chamber), and energy activation (temperature and pressure).

Relationship between diameter of cenospheres and fly ash’s chemical composition
Diameter of cenospheres was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) shown in Fig. 4 – 6. From Fig. 5, it shows that the diameters of cenospheres formed vary from 16 – 200 nm for TJB power plant, 1200 – 8500 nm for UBJOM Paiton power plant, 2000 – 4600 nm for Rembang power plant, 1300 – 5200 nm for Indramayu power plant, 2500 – 7500 nm for Tuban power plant, 2200 – 5200 nm for Pacitan power plant, and 2500 – 5200 nm for Paiton power plant. Because the diameter produced varies greatly, we proposed to use average diameter for each power plants as a parameter to be compared with chemical composition. From the average diameter calculation, the diameter of cenospheres is formed under several different unknown conditions, confidential data, for each power plants produced two region of cenospheres diameter which are Particulate Matter1 and Particulate Matter10 (PM1 and PM10). TJB power plant has produced PM1 while another power plants have produced PM10. The mechanism of PM1 and PM10 is strongly believed follow the mechanism of previous study ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Xu</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>120</RecNum><DisplayText>35</DisplayText><record><rec-number>120</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426207″>120</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Xu, Minghou</author><author>Yu, Dunxi</author><author>Yao, Hong</author><author>Liu, Xiaowei</author><author>Qiao, Yu %J Proceedings of the Combustion Institute</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Coal combustion-generated aerosols: Formation and properties</title></titles><pages>1681-1697</pages><volume>33</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2011</year></dates><isbn>1540-7489</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.proci.2010.09.014.</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>35. Two categories of pathway for PM formation was suggested which are solid-to-particle processes, producing PM1-10 typically via coalescence of included mineral particles within the same burning coal/char particles and fragmentation of mineral and/char particles and solid-vapor-particle processes, producing both PM1 and PM1-10 via possible pathways involving homogeneous nucleation, coagulation and agglomeration ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Xu</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>120</RecNum><DisplayText>35</DisplayText><record><rec-number>120</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”50ferzsd500fsoepeftvaa2r9zwer9v2tada” timestamp=”1538426207″>120</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Xu, Minghou</author><author>Yu, Dunxi</author><author>Yao, Hong</author><author>Liu, Xiaowei</author><author>Qiao, Yu %J Proceedings of the Combustion Institute</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Coal combustion-generated aerosols: Formation and properties</title></titles><pages>1681-1697</pages><volume>33</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2011</year></dates><isbn>1540-7489</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.proci.2010.09.014.</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>35. We do agree that the formations of both PM1 and PM10 are through those mechanism, although, there is unclear data nor strong information explained about the mechanism yet. We also believe that mechanisms of PM1 and PM10 differ each other because of greatly difference of its diameter produced. The mechanism of a vaporization-condensation process seems fit for PM1 and a solid-particle process seems suitable for PM10.

From Fig. 6, it can be seen the surface and diameter imaging of cenospheres produced from all power plants. Diameter variations are very noticeable from the figure while the smoothness of the surface for each cenospheres slightly different from TJB, UBJOM Paiton, and Tuban power plants. The further imaging is processed for TJB, UBJOM Paiton, and Tuban power plants in Fig. 7. It shows that TJB and Tuban power plant produce plerosphere and UBJOM Paiton power plant produces magnetosphere as described and grouped by many researchers.
Because of limitation data of PM1 produced in this study; only TJB power plant data, the relationship of cenospheres diameter and chemical composition is conducted for PM10 only. The relationship analysis between major component of SiO2, Al2O3, SiO2/Al2O3, Fe2O3, Fe2O3+TiO2, CaO, MgO and diameter of cenospheres was conducted and presented in Fig. 8-14 (b) respectively. It can be seen that the more SiO2 and Al2O3, the bigger of cenospheres diameter is gained. Meanwhile, others chemicals give opposite result; the more SiO2/Al2O3, Fe2O3, Fe2O3+TiO2, CaO, and MgO, the smaller of cenospheres diameter is gained. The values of R-squared from data fitting for chemical components and diameter of cenospheres are vary 0.50 – 0.66. Even though, the value of R-squared is less than 0.7, the relationship of each substances to the cenospheres diameter is greatly shown from the data and figure. However, further detailed research should be made for study the effect of chemical composition on the cenospheres diameter. The comprehensive comparison with previous studies about the relationship of chemical compositions and diameter of cenospheres is also presented in Table 4. The data gained in this research gives more reliable relationship for every chemical composition compared to others study. We only could not draw the relationship of SO3 with diameter of cenospheres because some power plants have undetected amount of SO3 in their fly ash.

Conclusion
Fly ash and cenospheres from seven coal-fired power plants in Indonesia have been successfully characterized. This study briefly explained the relationship of chemical composition-cenospheres’s yield and chemical composition-diameter of cenospheres, thus, it would help the understanding of cenospheres formation mechanism during coal combustion process and estimating the cenospheres production from fly ash produced. Furthermore, the result showed that the higher SiO2, Al2O3, Na2O3, and Al2O3/SiO2 value in the fly ash, the higher is the cenospheres yield. Reversely, another chemical component, such as Fe2O3, Fe2O3+TiO2, CaO, and MgO, gave lower yield in the increasing of the chemical component value. The data fitting for chemical components and yield had acceptable R-squared value in the range of 0.66 – 0.84. Those chemical existence in fly ash could be initial measuring variables to predict the amount of cenosphere obtained. To study the mechanism process of cenosphere, the relationship between diameter formed and chemical composition is often used in many studies. In contrast to other studies, this study used average diameter for comparison. Every chemical existence in fly ash surprisingly gave the same tendency on the diameter size produced alike the cenosphere yield. Even though, the values of R-squared value were only at 0.50 – 0.66 on the relationship between chemical component and cenosphere’s diameter, these tendency could provide valuable information in the cenospheres formation mechanism. Hopefully, this work can be useful for the utilization and further application of problematic fly ash management in Indonesia.

Acknowledgements
Highly appreciation to the Minister of Higher Education of Indonesia for the financial support to conduct this project under PTUPT scheme with contract number 1860/UN1/DITLIT/DIT-LIT/LT/2018.

References
ADDIN EN.REFLIST 1.Mohr, S., et al., Projection of world fossil fuels by country. 2015. 141: p. 120-135.

2.Cornot-Gandolphe, S., Indonesia’s Electricity Demand and the Coal Sector: Export Or Meet Domestic Demand? 2017: Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.

3.Indonesia, M.E.d.S.D.M.R., Keputusan Menteri Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral Republik Indonesia No. 5899 K/20/MEM/2016 tentang Pengesahan Rencana Usaha Penyediaan Tenaga Listrik PT M.o.E.a.M.R.o.t.R.o. Indonesia, Editor. 2016: Jakarta.

4.Indonesia, P.R.J.J.B.P.N., Peraturan Presiden Republik Indonesia Nomor 5 Tahun 2006 Tentang Kebijakan Energi Nasional. 2006.

5.Petroleum, B., BP Statistical Review of World Energy, B.S.R.o.W. Energy, Editor. 2018, British Petroleum: London SW1Y 4PD.

6.Joshi, R.C. and R. Lohita, Fly ash in concrete: production, properties and uses. Vol. 2. 1997: CRC Press.

7.Patra, K., et al., Analysis of grains grown on fly ash treated soils. 2012. 70(8): p. 1797-1802.

8.Neupane, G. and R.J.J.F. Donahoe, Leachability of elements in alkaline and acidic coal fly ash samples during batch and column leaching tests. 2013. 104: p. 758-770.

9.Nyale, S.M., et al., The leaching behaviour and geochemical fractionation of trace elements in hydraulically disposed weathered coal fly ash. 2014. 49(2): p. 233-242.

10.Ghosal, S. and S.A.J.F. Self, Particle size-density relation and cenosphere content of coal fly ash. 1995. 74(4): p. 522-529.

11.Ranjbar, N. and C.J.F. Kuenzel, Cenospheres: A review. 2017. 207: p. 1-12.

12.Acar, I. and M.J.F. Atalay, Recovery potentials of cenospheres from bituminous coal fly ashes. 2016. 180: p. 97-105.

13.Cho, H., D. Oh, and K.J.J.o.H.M. Kim, A study on removal characteristics of heavy metals from aqueous solution by fly ash. 2005. 127(1-3): p. 187-195.

14.Drozhzhin, V., et al., Formation processes and main properties of hollow aluminosilicate microspheres in fly ash from thermal power stations. 2008. 42(2): p. 107-119.

15.Fomenko, E., et al., Composition and structure of the shells of fly ash cenospheres from the combustion of coal of the Kuznetsk Basin. 2014. 48(2): p. 129-139.

16.Fomenko, E.V., et al., Characterization of fly ash cenospheres produced from the combustion of Ekibastuz coal. 2015. 29(8): p. 5390-5403.

17.Li, Y., H.J.E. Wu, and Fuels, Ash cenosphere from solid fuels combustion. Part 1: An investigation into its formation mechanism using pyrite as a model fuel. 2011. 26(1): p. 130-137.

18.HIRAJIMA, T., et al., Recovery of hollow and spherical particles from coal fly ash by wet separation process. 2008. 124(12): p. 878-884.

19.Hirajima, T., et al., Recovery of cenospheres from coal fly ash using a dry separation process: Separation estimation and potential application. 2010. 95(1-4): p. 18-24.

20.Petrus, H., et al., Performance of dry-separation processes in the recovery of cenospheres from fly ash and their implementation in a recovery unit. 2011. 98(1-2): p. 15-23.

21.Li, J., et al., Recovery and concentration of buoyant cenospheres using an Inverted Reflux Classifier. 2014. 123: p. 127-139.

22.Vassilev, S.V., et al., Phase-mineral and chemical composition of coal fly ashes as a basis for their multicomponent utilization. 2. Characterization of ceramic cenosphere and salt concentrates. 2004. 83(4-5): p. 585-603.

23.Ngu, L.-n., et al., Characterization of ash cenospheres in fly ash from Australian power stations. 2007. 21(6): p. 3437-3445.

24.Vassilev, S.V. and C.G.J.F. Vassileva, A new approach for the classification of coal fly ashes based on their origin, composition, properties, and behaviour. 2007. 86(10-11): p. 1490-1512.

25.Kolay, P.K. and S.J.F. Bhusal, Recovery of hollow spherical particles with two different densities from coal fly ash and their characterization. 2014. 117: p. 118-124.

26.?yrkowski, M., et al., Characterization of fly-ash cenospheres from coal-fired power plant unit. 2016. 174: p. 49-53.

27.Anshits, N., et al., Chemical composition and structure of the shell of fly ash non-perforated cenospheres produced from the combustion of the Kuznetsk coal (Russia). 2010. 89(8): p. 1849-1862.

28.Yi, L., et al., Prediction of elemental composition of coal using proximate analysis. 2017. 193: p. 315-321.

29.Goodarzi, F.J.F., Characteristics and composition of fly ash from Canadian coal-fired power plants. 2006. 85(10-11): p. 1418-1427.

30.Vassilev, S.V. and C.G.J.F.P.T. Vassileva, Mineralogy of combustion wastes from coal-fired power stations. 1996. 47(3): p. 261-280.

31.McCarthy, G.J., et al., Mineralogy of western fly ash. 1984. 14(4): p. 471-478.

32.Sokol, E., et al., Hollow silicate microspheres from fly ashes of the Chelyabinsk brown coals (South Urals, Russia). 2000. 67(1): p. 35-52.

33.Fisher, G., D. Chang, and M.J.S. Brummer, Fly ash collected from electrostatic precipitators: microcrystalline structures and the mystery of the spheres. 1976. 192(4239): p. 553-555.

34.Fomenko, E.V., et al., Composition and morphology of fly ash cenospheres produced from the combustion of kuznetsk coal. 2013. 27(9): p. 5440-5448.

35.Xu, M., et al., Coal combustion-generated aerosols: Formation and properties. 2011. 33(1): p. 1681-1697.

ADDIN Mendeley Bibliography CSL_BIBLIOGRAPHY

x

Hi!
I'm Marcia!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out