This paper aims to discuss the impact of globalization in the shaping of the world order. It argues that although the globalization was present in the early civilizations, its impact was much felt after the post-cold war. It further analyses the influence it has posed both in developing states and power states, and how its emergence in the 1990s affected or rather shifted interest of states.
Globalization has played a key role in state interdependence. With increase movement of people across borders, free trade and the spread of cultural ideas, norms, the world has become a ‘global village.’
This paper is divided into three parts. The first part discusses on cold war and “the old order’. It focuses on events in the cold war and how the two ideologies (capitalism and communism). Affect states’ relations. It also mentions on bipolarity as a system of order.
The second part is on new world order. It begins by mentioning what the world order is.it further illustrates the different perspectives of new world order from the two schools of thought. (realism and liberalism)
The third part discusses on how globalization has shaped the post-cold war world order (new world order) .it looks at the difference forms of globalizations and how they all impact world order.
COLD WAR AND WORLD ORDER
The cold war emerged after world war two. It was a classic case of bipolarity, a system of world order. The international system was divided based on two ideologies: capitalism and communism in that the distribution of power, was between two blocs, the US (and its allies) and the USSR. The majority of global economic, military and cultural influence was held between the two
Impact of the cold war and old world order
According to waltz, bipolarity created order ‘as there was only two world powers and therefore, there was no periphery’. This was not entirely the case as certain events that occurred were contrary to waltz initial assertions. Overall, the cold war created competition rather than order.
The era influence changes in global distribution of powers, impacted an evolution of world economy and division among European states. As a result, the cold war order compelled states to shape rules and institutions of international economy. Furthermore, it obligated states to abide by the two blocs as a norm. In line to that, it shaped the foreign policies of states as they associated with other states that were acceptable of their ideologies
Cold war had negative impacts to the international system. This included the following; it undermined political activism and justified American intervention around the world causing egregious evidence. In addition to that, it led to the competition of land and conflict especially in third world states.
Conflicts during the cold war
The cold war caused conflicts in several states. This included;
A civil war in Greece- this was as result of a military and financial aid that was given by the us. The communist feared that Greece, being the last Balkan state to resist the soviet domination, would turn against the communism.
Invasion in Vietnam –in 1960. The us military were approved a new counterinsurgency program for Vietnam; the following years ‘reaffirmed the us commitment to Vietnam. It aimed to stop communist domination of south Vietnam by pushing its doctrines i.e. Increasing democratic society, creating a mutually supporting action of a military, political and economic. It also deployed forces to deteriorate north Vietnam –Chinese communist action.
This in turn led to communist attack in the us base. It retaliated by bombing north Korea. This was followed by a series of conflicts between the two states. this proved to cause disorder in the international system. Evidently, the system of bipolarity was causing more division, competition and infringement of human rights.
The end of cold war
The end of cold war was symbolized by the fall of berlin wall in 1989, prompting the collapse of Soviet Union. This was followed by a number of events; reunification of Germany and the whole Europe, disarmament and the end bipolarity.
Age of globalization
The growth of globalization is said to have be traced back to 1970 where there was a growth of interdependence among states. It was more evident in the 1980s and 1990s. During this time economic globalization seemed to have influenced state relations. In the late 1990s, the end of cold war paved way ,contributed to the reduction of barriers, trade and investment, which in the long run, facilitate the growth of `an age of globalization’.
NEW WORLD ORDER
The term world order has had a multidimensional perspective. It has been described in two different ways, especially in the assertions of world politics.
According to joseph Nye, realists like Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger view sovereign states balancing each other power. He further explain that they see world order as product of a stable distribution of power among many states.
As for liberalists, e.g. Woodrow Wilson and jimmy carter, they focus on the relations among people as well states. According to liberalist approach on world order, they assert that, it arises from the values like democracy and human rights as well from international law and institutions.
The post-cold war paved way for the emergence of globalization, surfing of unipolar system (us as a superpower) and new world order. The new world order is perceived to have been influenced by liberalist ideologies. The post-cold war saw president George Bush spearhead new world order. He referred to the post-cold war as `the beginning of an order in which united nations would act as an institution where rivalries were regulated, injustices were rectified and global peace maintained. In addition to that, he also advocate for a world where there would be a “free space to prosper in liberalization of international economy.”
HOW GLOBALIZATION HAS SHAPED THE POST-COLD WAR ORDER
Globalization can be termed as the process of interaction and integration between people, companies and government. Globalization can manifest in different forms; economic, political and cultural.
The forms of globalization illustrate their impact in shaping world order in the international system.
This is the integration with the world economy through removal of trade barrier, privatization and liberalization. Economic globalization has been enhanced through institution like the world trade organization multinational corporations and international monetary.
So how do economic institutions influence global order? According to Gilpin (2001:209) multinational corporations have shaped the structure and functioning of global markets.
It has enhanced the intrafirm international division of production process. It has also acted as an actor in policy making .it has influenced political actors, changing the law, by threatening to move jobs and investment elsewhere if conditions are not meant. This in turn, has prompted governments in most cases, to comply with the set conditions.
As for international trade organizations such as world trade organizations and regional bodies e.g. Nafta they have created interdependence
It created a new world order, in that, it strengthened the nation-state by reinforcement of executing power. This has compelled states to negotiate with each other on the formulation of policies. With the liberalization of trade policies, regulation of economies and privatization of enterprise, national governments have less control over their territories.
This is the integration of the world community through ideas, norms and values. The post-cold war period gave rise to political globalization in that they were an emergence of global civil society, advocacy for democratization of the world and issues aligned with global politics, global normative culture and polycentric networks.
Political globalization has changed the relation between state society, individual and new global communities. The global society has been related to civil societalisation of politics. They have been involved in the spread of governance practices which coordinate policy beyond state. The political globalization has influenced order in the international system in that it has created a commonality of political norms that have acted as a linkage between local and global.
Civil society has facilitated the spread democracy to the world, even where there is restriction. The civil society representation in global governance has contributed to the increasing of reforms in the international institutions further enhancing new ways of incorporating other actions.
It has resulted to the permeation of international relations and nations-states increasingly choosing to mobilize actors in the global society.
Military/ security globalization
The distribution of power between two blocs meant that state were the sole actors for the provision of security to protect their territorial boundaries. States during the time invested a lot in the enhancing or rather increasing military capacity. Globalization widens the scope of security. Military globalization has shifted power of nation-states to control their non-physical security requirements, such as protection of information and technology assets. States are becoming more sensitive to security and military; this is so as security issues have broadened.
With the end of cold war, the traditional politico-military definition broadened. As mentioned, threats against states widened, as they have received threats from non-military sources of insecurity that needed non-military responses from institutions. the post-cold war also saw proliferation of weapons and increased multilateral negotiations .
International non –governmental organization bodies such as united nations international atomic energy agency have attempted to control proliferations .these bodies have compelled states by the treaties – this therefore means that states are legally bind.
Russia become the sole heir of nuclear weapons , south African abandoned its weapons and nonproliferation treaty .
The end of cold war, paved way to numerous change in the international system. With the age of globalization, state have become interdependent. This has been catalyzed by the push of liberal ideology(globalization) in all sector- rise of transnational organizations, global society and international institutions. These groups have advocated or rather influenced certain policies to the global arena. This in turn, push the idea of a new world order. The united states, through her president George Bush spearheaded. Globalization played a key role in shaping world order. Both a negative and positive way. With the emerging issues at hand, there is no clear indication what will be the future of globalization and world order.