Home Free Lab ReportsABSTRACT For many years in many countries cancer has been a problem to public health

ABSTRACT For many years in many countries cancer has been a problem to public health

ABSTRACT
For many years in many countries cancer has been a problem to public health .it is the 2nd leading cause of death globally. Approximately 70% of deaths from cancer occur in low and middle class and middle class income. Causes of cancer can be from behavioural and dietary risks such as high body mass index, lack of physical exercise, smoking cigarettes, alcohol intake and low fruits and vegetable intake. Also genetic factors are one of the main causes of cancer .cancer can be treated in many ways depending on the type of cancer and how advanced it is. This methods are chemotherapy, immunotherapy targeted therapy, hormone therapy, and precision medicine. Although this types of therapy have limitations due to their side effects such as toxicity, late effects which normally depend on the side of the body the surgery was perfomed.example of the late effects is memory loss and trouble focus . Also the costs of treatment are normally high. However medicinal plant treatment has taken over the attention of researchers as a way of treating and managing this deadly cancer. Plants are producing naturally occurring metabolites .a plant species known as solanecio nandensis s.moore have been reported to be used for cancer treatment and management of cancer by some communities living around Kakamega tropical rain forest in Kakamega County in Kenya .the main objective of this study is to identify the active secondary metabolite contained in this plant. Different plant parts will be extracted such as the leaves, stem, stem bark, roots, root bark and the whole plant .this will be by cold solvent percolation using different solvent systems and tested for their toxicity and their anti-cancer activities .techniques such as column chromatography and thin layer chromatography will be used for separation and isolation of pure compounds from crude extracts. Structure identifications of compounds will be done by spectroscopic methods such as infrared, ultraviolet spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy .the activity of anti-cancer will be tested on the human ovarian cancer cell lines. The structure of the active anti-cancer agents will be used to serve as a chemical models or templates for the design and synthesis of affordable, efficient and safe anti-cancer drugs from medicinal plant
INTRODUCTION
CANCER BURDEN IN THE WORLD
Globally the 2nd leading cause of deaths is cancer, responsible for approximately 9.6 million deaths. {WHO, 2018}.it is caused by unregulated growth of cells. They can affect any part of the body. When this cells grows beyond boundaries they affect various parts of the body and spread to other biological organs. The major cause of cancer are metastases ,which is the latter process(WHO2018).Several factors have lead to increased cancer burden ,these are population growth, ageing, changes of diet, nutrition and physical activities(Michelle,WRF,2018).42 million people globally are suffering from all the types of cancer this number however has increased since 1990 where the population suffering with cancer was 19 million (Max&Hannah,2015-2018).The estimates of different forms of cancer as per our word data in 2016.Breast cancer prevalence was the leading estimated at 8 million;6.3 million had colon &rectum ;5.7 million with prostate and over 2.8 million tracheal and bronchus &lung cancer .Globally majority of cancer occurs for those aged 50 and above.1 per cent of cancer globally occurs at children and adolescents aged 14 years and under. For gender cases lung and breast cancer are the most diagnosed cancers and are the most leading causes of deaths .In men and women liver and stomach cancers are the most often diagnosed in the lower class countries. (Torre et al.2015) .The poorly developed countries have been in the receiving end for the high prevalence of cancer, this is due to increased population, exposure to high cancer risk factors aging population.

CANCER BURDN IN AFRICAN
In Africa the burden of cancer has been increasing tremendously. In 2012 8.2 million worldwide were estimated to have died from cancer where by greater than 2/3 were from Africa. Cancer of the cervix, breast, liver and prostate is the most prominent in African countries. Annually there are more than 600,000 cancer deaths in Africa .In developing countries in Africa, there will be an increase in cancer cases in the next ten years.

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CANCER BURDEN IN KENYA
Cancer is the third leading cause of deaths in Kenya .There was 37,000 new cancer cases and 28500 cancer deaths in Kenya in the year 2012 (Ministry of health Kenya, 2012).According to KEMRI it reported that 80% cancer cases in the country are diagnosed at advanced stages. According to data collected from the year 2014 -2016 by cancer institution ,the cancer Texas centre reports that Nairobi is the leading with cancer burden in the country. It is true that cancer afflicts many Kenyans year in year out ,and therefore in the next 20 years Kenyan no 1 killer will be cancer (FR.Nyongesa 2016).More women in Kenya are treated for cancer as compared to men (KNH2018) .Reports reveals that in a year there are about 2,233 more women being treated as compared to men. This rate is due to the fact that women have higher rates of obesity (Ministry of health 2014-2018).also the use of birth control pills may be fuelling the high rates of cancer in women.

USES OF PLANTS FOR TREATMENT
Different types of plants are used for herbalism and some of the plants contain medicinal activity. (Bassam, 2012).This plants contain ingredients that could be used in drug development. Plants have been used for treatment for many years. Research reveals that many developing countries have been depending on plants and practioners in order to meet their health needs .Plants contain raw materials for manufacturing of modern day medicines. Many people are seeking herbal remedies for treating minor ailments. (Motaleb, M.A, et.al.2011) .According to WHO, it is estimated that 4 billion people globally use medicinal plants to meet their care health needs. This acknowledgement of paramount medicinal use attracted the attention of WHO to produce 28 standard pharmacopoeia documentation information on selected plants (Gossell, 2006).The interest of use of medicinal plants, lead to the development of new classification of therapeutic known as nutraceutical (De Felise,1989).These are the parts of the plant that provide medicinal benefits ,such as prevention of diseases.

PLANTS AS A SOURCE OF ANTI-CANCER AGENTS
In history plants have been used for treatment of cancer. There are more than 3,000 plants that were reported to be used for treatment of cancer.(Hartwell,1982).They are the most desired because they are natural and readily available. They are less toxic to human cells plants derived compounds have played a major role in development of anti-cancer agents. For example vinblastine, vincristine and topotecan.In 1950’s the search of anticancer agents began. Approximately over 60% anti-cancer agents used currently are obtained from natural sources ,for example the marine organisms , micro-organism and more so the plants .Episode ;tenipisode which are natural products derivatives are considered to be semi-synthetic are closely linked to a plant originally known for treatment of cancer (Lee;Xiao,2015).

topotecan STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In the past decades there have been a remarkable advances in science that have generated better treatment of cancer. There is a high optimism that various types of cancer will be cured. Cancer development pathways can be blocked by targeting mutations of cancer cells. However cancer treatment can come with effects such as toxicity, some patients also can be resistant to drugs and eventually die. Therefore balanced balancing the risk and the benefit must be considered and evaluated. In addition cancer treatment can be much expensive. All this effects makes it clear that new studies must be done to avoid the high cost and the effects caused by the treatment. This study focused on determining anti-cancer constituents of solanecio nandensis used for treatment of cancer, used around the Kakamega tropical rainforest of Kakamega County
REFERENCE
1:Ministry of Health, Kenya. National Cancer Control Strategy 2017 – 2022 Nairobi, June 2017
2:Bassam Abdul Rasool Hassan* Clinical Pharmacy Discipline, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Penang, Malaysia
3: Dr M Gossell-Williams, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Kingston 7, Jamaica, West Indies.

4: Hartwell J L. (1982). Plants Used Against Cancer. 709 pp. Lawrence, Massachusetts.

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