2.2.2. Concept
The concept of Industry 4.0 can be summed up in 3 words: Economy, Personalization and Accessibility.
The factory, in this concept, must be digitized through the use of the Internet of Things to ensure a regular diagnosis and this can only cause the optimization of the machines performance.
Also, the factory of the future must be flexible especially after the connection of the machine with the outside world. The final costumer must have the right to choose the product and the modifications he wishes.
Another concept of Industry 4.0 is to be able to simulate the factory by models called virtual or digital twins. This twin will be used to put a reference for a machine to know the factors of optimal operation.
And finally, and more importantly, the Manufactory must be energy efficient as well as in raw materials. And this is the great challenge of this revolution

2.2.3. Technologies
To ensure the industry of the future to be smart and be able part of the industrial concept 4.0, we will require the presence of many different and important parts:

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The machines must be connected to each other and to facilitate this, it was necessary to create a common protocol between it. This Protocol is the OPC UA.
Also, to properly implement this model, it was necessary to create standards such as IEC62264 (Enterprise-Control Systems Integration) and IEC61512 (Design and Specification of Batch Manufacturing Process Control Systems) and currently the Standard IEC62890 is in the finalization phase.

Network infrastructure
In this context, communication plays a very important role. In order to upgrade the factories, the infrastructure must first be changed.
WIFI, Zig Bee, Lora, all are wireless communication protocols. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. For example Bluetooth is faster but less energy efficient in comparison to the Zig Bee.

Augmented Reality
It’s a new technology that is based on the progress of mobile devices. It consists of superimposing elements (3D, 2D, Sounds …) on reality.
It is now used everywhere considering the ease of transmission of information.
In the industrial field, one of these applications can be used to equip an operator with a virtual reality glasses and guide him to execute his task or sent commands in real time.
Big Data and Cloud Computing
The communication of the machines will generate the circulation of enormous data.
These data can reflect the global state of the industry that is why it was necessary to set up analysis and data management systems in order to gain in quality, speed and especially in economy.
One of the Solutions that has emerged, these data analysis systems can appear on CLOUD platforms. This technology makes it possible to centralize information and increase connectivity between the different parts of the factory.

The Cobots
This is the second generation of robots. They are collaborative robots equipped with several sensors to ensure the safety of the human being. His role is to assist the operator.
3. Universal Robot
Previously we have indicated that the cobots play an important role in the phase of transition to the new era, they are the future of the automation industry.

3.1. UR general presentation
UR’s particular reduced weight and their hyper intuitive programming have made it easier and possible to robotize the production from the very small series as they are easily transportable also their speed of implementation allows us to use them at various and different production stations.
3.1.1. UR and Industry
UR presents a simple and smart solution to every industry’s challenges. We can use it to automate different and variety of industries: Food and Agriculture, Furniture and Equipment, Electronics and Technology, Metal and Machine, Automotive and Subcontractors, Plastics and Polymers, Pharmacy and Chemistry, Scientific and Research.
Also, it allows us to virtually automate different applications such as assembly, painting, screw-driving, labelling, packing, polishing, injection molding, welding…
3.1.2. Origin and History
The following table 2.1 gathers general information about the universal robot creation.


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